Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition

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Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition

Title: Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition

Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition

List of Entries

Abolitionist Women
Adams, John Quincy (1767-
Africa, Antislavery in
Africa, Emancipation in
Africa Squadron
African American Communities
Allen, Richard (1760-1831)
Ambar, Malik (c. 1550-1626)
American and Foreign
Anti-Slavery Society
American Anti-Slavery Society
American Colonization Society
American Convention of
Abolition Societies
American Jews and Antislavery
American Missionary
Association (AMA)
Antislavery Evangelical
Antislavery Journalism in the
United States and Great
Anti-Slavery Society (1787)
Anti-Slavery Society (1909)
Antislavery Songs
Aptheker, Herbert (1915-2003)
Arabia and Nineteenthand
Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.)
Associates of Dr. Thomas Bray
Atlantic Slave Trade and British
Baartman, Sara (c. 1790-1815)
Bacon, Leonard (1802-1881)
Bailey, Gamaliel (1807-1859)
Baptist War (1831-1832)
Barbary Wars and White
American Enslavement in
North Africa
Barnes, Albert (1798-1871)
Behn, Aphra (1637/40-1689)
Benezet, Anthony (1713-1784)
Benin, Restrictions on Slave
Trade in
Berlin Act (1885)
Berlin Africa Conference
Bible and Slavery
Birney, James Gillespie (1792-
Bleeding Kansas
Bodin, Jean (c. 1530-1596)
Bol?var, Simon (1783-1830)
Bonaparte, Napoleon (1769-
Book of Exodus
Boyer, Jean-Pierre (1776-1850)
Bright, John (1811-1889)
Brissot de Warville, Jacques-
Pierre (1754-1793)
British and Foreign Anti-Slavery
Society (BFASS)
British Guiana and Caribbean
British Slavery, Abolition of
Brougham, Henry Peter (1778-
Brussels Act (1890)
Brussels Conference (1889-
Buddhism and Antislavery
Burned-Over District
Burns, Anthony (d. 1862)
Burritt, Elihu (1810-1879)
Buxton, Thomas Fowell (1786-
Canada, Antislavery in
Canning, George
Cape of Good Hope,
Antislavery and
Emancipation at
Chase, Salmon Portland (1808-
Child, Lydia Maria (1802-1880)
China and Antislavery
Chulalongkorn, King of Siam
Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-Day Saints and
Cicero (106-43 B.C.E.)
Clarkson, Thomas (1760-1846)
Classical Greek Antislavery
Classical Rome and Antislavery
Clay, Cassius Marcellus (1810-
Clay, Henry (1777-1852)
Commonwealth v. Aves
Compromise of 1850
Confiscation Acts (1861,
Congregationalism and
Congress of Vienna (1814-
Congressional Debate on
Ending U.S. Atlantic Slave
Connecticut Society for the
Promotion of Freedom
Contract Labor
Convict Leasing
Crandall, Prudence (1803-
Creole Affair (1841)
Cuba, Emancipation in
Cugoano, Ottobah (1757-?)
Danish West Indies, Abolition
and Emancipation in
Declaration of Independence
Delany, Martin Robison (1812-
Democratic Party and
Dessalines, Jean-Jacques (1758-
Disinterested Benevolence
Douglass, Frederick (1818-
Du Bois, William Edward
Burghardt (1868-1963)
Dutch Colonies, Abolition of
Slavery in
Dutch Slave Trade, Abolition of
Dwight, Theodore (1764-1846)
East African Slave Trade
Edwards, Jonathan (1703-
Edwards, Jonathan, Jr. (1745-
The Enlightenment and
Equiano, Olaudah (c. 1745-
Ethiopia, Haile Selassie and
Abolition in
Federalists and Antislavery
Fee, John Gregg (1816-1901)
Field Order No. 15
Finney, Charles Grandison
First Great Awakening and
Fitzhugh, George (1806-1881)
Foster, Abby Kelley (1811-
Franklin, Benjamin (1706-
Free Blacks in the Post-
Emancipation Societies
Free Produce Movement
Freedmen’s Aid Societies
Freedmen’s Bureau
Freedom Suits in North
Freemasonry and Antislavery
French Colonies, Emancipation
of (February 4, 1794)
Fugitive Slave Law (1850)
Gabriel’s Conspiracy (1800)
Gandhi, Mohandas (1869-
Garnet, Henry Highland (1815-
Garrison, William Lloyd (1805-
Gender and Slave Emancipation
Gender Relations within
Georgia Trustees (1732-1751)
German Coast (Louisiana)
Insurrection of 1811
Germantown Antislavery
Petition (1688)
Godwyn, Morgan (1640-
c. 1695)
Gradual Emancipation
Grimke, Angelina Emily (1805-
Grimke, Charlotte Forten
Grotius, Hugo (1583-1645)
Haitian Revolution (1791-
Hale, John Parker (1806-1873)
Hall, Prince (c. 1735-1807),
Black Freemasonry, and
Hart, Levi (1738-1808)
Haynes, Lemuel (1753-1833)
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich
Helper, Hinton Rowan (1829-
Heyrick, Elizabeth Coltman
Hibernian (Irish) Anti-Slavery
Higher Law and Antislavery
Hiring-Out and Challenges to
Historiography of American
Abolitionism and Antislavery
Hopkins, Samuel (1721-1803)
Human Rights and the
Abolition of Slavery
Ideological Origins of
Antislavery Thought
Immediate Emancipation
Imperialism and Antislavery
Indentured Labor and
Indian-Mestizo Captives,
Liberation of
Indian Subcontinent,
Antislavery in
Inkle and Yarico, Tale of
Internal Slave Trade and
Ireland, Antislavery in
Islam and Antislavery
James, C.L.R. (1901-1989)
Jay, John (1745-1829)
Jay, William (1789-1858)
Jefferson, Thomas and
Jerry Rescue (1851)
Just War Theory as Justification
for Slavery
Keith, George (1638-1716)
Kemble, Fanny (1809-1893)
King, Boston (1760-1802)
Kossuth, Louis (1802-1894)
Labor Movements and
Lane Seminary Debates (1834)
Las Casas, Bartolome de (c.
Latin America, Antislavery and
Abolition in
Lavigerie, Charles (1825-1892)
League of Nations and
Antislavery and Abolition
League of Nations Covenant,
Articles 22 and 23
Les Amis des Noirs
Levy, Moses Elias (1782-1854)
Liberated Africans at the Cape
of Good Hope
Liberty Party
Lincoln, Abraham (1809-1865)
Literature and Abolition
Livingstone, David (1813-1873)
Locke, John (1632-1704)
Long, Edward (1734-1813)
Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation
L’Ouverture, Toussaint (1743-
Lovejoy, Elijah (1802-1837)
Lundy, Benjamin (1789-1839)
Macaulay, Zachary
Maroons of Jamaica/Tacky
Martineau, Harriet (1802-1875)
Memorialization of Antislavery
and Abolition
Methodists and Antislavery
Mexican War and Antislavery
Mill, John Stuart (1806-1873)
Millennialism and Abolitionism
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Montesquieu, Charles de
Secondat, Baron de (1689-
More, Hannah (1745-1833)
Moreau de Saint-Mery, Mederic-
Louis Elie (1750-1819)
Mott, Lucretia Coffin (1793-
Muscat and Oman, Abolition of
Slavery in
Myers, Stephen (1800-1870)
and Myers, Harriet (1807-
Nabuco, Joaquim (1849-1910)
and Abolition in Brazil
‘‘Negro Exodus’’ (1879-1881)
New Divinity
New England Antislavery
Society (NEASS)
New York Committee of
New York Manumission Society
Newton, John (1725-1807)
North Africa and Abolition
Northwest Ordinance (1787)
Nova Scotia
O’Connell, Daniel (1775-1847)
Oroonoko and Early
Antislavery Literary Works
Ottoman Empire, Decline of
Slavery in
Paine, Thomas (1737-1809)
Palenques (Colombia)
Parker, John Percial (1827-
Paul, Nathaniel (1793-1839)
Pennsylvania Abolition Society
Phillips, Wendell (1811-1884)
Pitt, William, the Younger
Plato (c. 427-c. 347 B.C.E.)
Pointe Coupee Rebellion
Port Royal (South Carolina)
Portuguese Colonies, Abolition
Postal Campaign (1835)
Prince, Mary (c. 1788-c. 1833)
Prison Reform and Antislavery
Pugachev’s Revolt
Quakers and Antislavery
Quok Walker Decision
Qur’an and Antislavery
Radical Republicans
Rankin, John (1793-1886)
Raynal, Abbe Guillaume-
Thomas (1713-1796)
Reconstruction Acts in the
United States (1867-1868)
Redpath, James (1833-1891)
Re-emergence of Slavery
During Era of World War II
Republicanism and Antislavery
Roma and Emancipation
Roman Catholic Church and
Antislavery and Abolitionism
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712-
Ruggles, David (1810-1849)
Rush, Benjamin (1746-1813)
Russian Serfs, Emancipation of
Saint Augustine (354-430)
Saint Domingue, French Defeat
in (1803)
Sandoval, Alonso de, S.J.
Saudi Arabia and Abolition
Schoelcher, Victor (1804-1893)
Scotland, Antislavery in
Scottish Churches and
Secession Crisis and
The Secret Six
Segregation and
Disenfranchisement in the
American South
‘‘The Selling of Joseph’’ (Sewall,
Seminole Wars
Seneca Falls Convention
Seward, William Henry (1801-
Sierra Leone
Slave Narratives
Slave Power Argument
Slavery and Abolition in the
Twentieth Century
Slavery Convention of
Smith, Adam (1723-1790)
Smith, Gerrit (1797-1874)
Smith, James McCune (1813-
Society for the Propagation of
the Gospel (SPG)
Somerset Decision (1772)
Sonthonax, Leger Felicite
Spanish Empire, Antislavery
and Abolition in
Spartacus Revolt
(73-71 B.C.E.)
Spooner, Lysander (1808-1887)
Sri Lanka, Antislavery in
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady (1815-
Stewart, Maria Miller (1803-
Stipendiary Magistrates
Story of Joseph (Genesis
30:22-24, 37-50)
Stowe, Harriet Beecher (1811-
Sturge, Joseph (1793-1859)
Supplementary Convention on
the Abolition of Slavery, the
Slave Trade, and Institutions
and Practices Similar to
Slavery (1956)
Swisshelm, Jane Grey (1815-
Tappan, Arthur (1786-1865)
Tappan, Lewis (1788-1873)
Texas, Annexation of (1845)
Thirteenth Amendment
Thompson, George (1804-
Tocqueville, Alexis de (1805-
Truth, Sojourner (c. 1797-
Tubman, Harriet (c. 1825-
Tucker, St. George (1752-
Tupac Amaru II
Turner, Nat (1800-1831)
Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852)
Underground Railroad
Unitarianism and Antislavery
United Nations and Antislavery
United States, Antislavery in
United States Constitution and
United States South, Antislavery
Vesey’s Conspiracy (1822)
Violence and Non-violence in
American Abolitionism
Von Scholten, Peter (1784-
Walker, David (1796/97-1830)
Washington, D.C.,
Compensated Emancipation
Wedderburn, Robert (1762-
c. 1831)
Weld, Theodore Dwight (1803-
West Indies Emancipation Day
Whig Party and Antislavery
Whitefield, George (1714-
Wilberforce, William (1759-
Williams, Eric Eustace (1911-
Women’s Antislavery
World’s Anti-Slavery
Convention (1840)
Wright, Henry Clarke (1797-


The purpose of Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition is to detail as
accessibly as possible the history of antislavery, abolition, and emancipation
and to illustrate the broad spectrum of forms these forces acquired and
courses they followed over time and space. While the dramatic events in
the Atlantic World will occupy a central place in the work, their vital
expressions elsewhere in the world will also be highlighted. This two-volume
encyclopedia will afford the most current compendium of the diverse
and innovative scholarship produced over the past several decades that
reckons with the history of antislavery, abolition, and emancipation.
The Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition is organized around three
principal thematic concerns: the illustration and explication of the various
forms of (1) antislavery and its emergence as an organized movement; (2)
the immediate precipitants of abolition and the processes of its passage;
and (3) the process of emancipation and its consequences. Slavery existed
historically throughout the world, and this encyclopedia will highlight slavery
in numerous societies and eras as it moved through these three stages
towards its demise.
What exactly constituted antislavery, abolition, and emancipation, and
where, when, and why did they manifest? While the earliest expressions of
antislavery may have only comprised one or a few isolated voices, the antislavery
most commonly reviewed in this encyclopedia will be that animated
by a systematic and ardent opposition to slavery and intended to mobilize
large numbers of people to attack and end the institution. A wide variety of
people and organizations nurtured and extended this antislavery; religious
figures, political economists, slaves, sailors, artisans, missionaries, planters,
captains of slave ships, democratic enthusiasts, and others were all
involved, along with the various organizations-secular, religious, or otherwise-
with which they were associated. Antislavery was by no means the
work exclusively, or even principally, of an intellectual elite, and the force
of all, from the lowly and unlearned to the privileged and articulate, must
be represented in this encyclopedia if it is to comprehend accurately the
scope of antislavery. The presence of slavery continued to be attacked in
the contracting Ottoman Empire in the early twentieth century, in Liberia
in the 1930s, in Saudi Arabia in the mid-twentieth century, and even in the
latter years of the century in countries like Sudan, Pakistan, India, and other
states in Southeast Asia. Sometimes the indigenous antislavery movement
was feeble or non-existent, but such extra-national forces, such as British or
world opinion, and, especially, the League of Nations and the United
Nations, would apply important antislavery pressure. This encyclopedia will
detail all these critical events, and others, concerning antislavery in the
twentieth century.
While movements to abolish slavery have involved a complex aggregation
of social, political, economic, and cultural forces, the actual act of abolition
itself was largely state-sponsored through legislative or juridical decision.
For example, the ending of slavery in the Northern states of the United
States during and after the Revolutionary War was largely a legislative, juridical,
and elite process with relatively little popular mobilization. While the
coalescing of an organized social movement around antislavery might often
precede the act of abolition, the actual definitive steps towards abolition
and the passage of it may be isolated as a distinct phenomenon meriting a
separate category for abolition itself. A vigorous, organized antislavery movement
existed in Great Britain and especially the United States well before
definitive steps towards the abolition of slavery were taken in the colonies
or in the South. In other societies, such as France, Russia, various new Latin
American nations, the Ottoman Empire, Thailand, and many other nations,
abolition was overwhelmingly a political act of the legislature or monarch,
occurring with virtually no organized antislavery movement present.
Indeed, these acts were often passed-and modified-in the face of significant
opposition to them from slaveholding interests and their supporters.
This was particularly the case for the emerging Latin American republics in
the early decades of the nineteenth century. Events leading up to abolition
were often tumultuous, and abolition edicts were not uncommonly issued
during times of war or slave insurrection in the slaveholding society when
colonial interests sought to stymie rebellion and also to find troops among
the enslaved; St. Domingue and the various young Latin American republics
illustrate this process. The diverse and dramatic roads to abolition and the
various forms the measure to abolish acquired will be exhibited throughout
these volumes.
The encyclopedia will also pay some attention to the numerous, powerful,
and articulate figures who opposed abolition and argued for the innate
inferiority of the subjugated or their unfitness for freedom. The abolitionists
had constantly to respond to these arguments and to undermine pervasive
beliefs in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries that people of African
descent were naturally fit for enslavement. Thinking about race played
a vital part in the movement towards, or away from, abolition. However, by
the mid-nineteenth century, after the British and French abolition of slavery
in their colonies, abolition was increasingly associated with the modernizing
and progressive liberal state, and other states such as Brazil in the 1880s
and the Ottoman Empire after World War I implemented abolition in pursuit
of that progressive modernity. The worldwide abolition of slavery was
also upheld as a foundation of the humanitarianism supposedly underlying
British imperial expansion in the nineteenth century. Other European countries
would reiterate this argument in the latter part of the century as they
penetrated into Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa where, for example,
Belgium would ban slavery in the Congo, although instituting its own
severe labor regimen that all but duplicated slavery.
Finally, the encyclopedia will chronicle the processes and significance of
the various emancipations that have occurred over history, but most numerously
since the late-eighteenth century. The unfolding of emancipation in a
society entailed very different processes, expectations, and conflicts from
those that preceded abolition. In sum, one was involved with organizing
and mobilizing for or against the continuation of legal slavery within a society,
while the other is much more concerned with the economic and social
consequences of that abolition-most commonly with the regulation and
control of the freedmen’s labor and with their political status. While these
latter concerns about the consequences of abolition were certainly
expressed during the struggles over abolition, they were marshaled either
to defend or attack the institution. After the passing of the abolition struggle,
these concerns over consequences and regulation became the centerpiece
of the society in which slavery had been ended. Thus, for
organizational purposes in this encyclopedia, emancipation and abolition-
while evidently related-will also be explored as two separate and discrete
While abolition will be identified as the immediate process of ending slavery,
emancipation is designated the process of the formerly enslaved becoming
formally free in a previously slaveholding society. The unfolding of
freedom continues long after the movement towards and the act of ending.
Indeed, over the past thirty years or more, the historiography of the course
and trials of the freed people and their former owners after abolition in the
American South, the British West Indies, Latin America, and elsewhere has
grown immensely. Slaves well might begin becoming free by taking decisive
steps towards destroying the legal institution of slavery before abolition and
emancipation; such measures characterized the actions of slaves in the
American North during the American Revolution and in the South during
the Civil War, in Latin America during its various wars of independence, in
Jamaica during the Baptist Revolt, and certainly in St. Domingue. And flight,
resistance, and rebellion which did not contribute directly to the overthrow
of slavery was an integral part of an emerging, organized antislavery movement
in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; the maroons and black
rebels of St. Domingue, Jamaica, Surinam, Guiana, Demerara, Palmares, Quilombo,
and Palenque were crucial agents of antislavery in the Atlantic
World both for the dramatic evidence they gave of enduring black
autonomy and the keen problems they posed for the maintenance of local
slaveholding regimes. But the use of the term emancipation in this encyclopedia
will largely refer to the processes and consequences of freeing that
occurs throughout the formerly slaveholding society after the point of formal
abolition. Emancipation is the working-out of the fact of abolition.
Emancipation might be of a very long duration such as the movement
from slavery to serfdom in Western, Eastern, and Central Europe where slavery
only diminished very slowly over the centuries, or it might occur gradually
over a number of years and decades as it did in the North of the United
States or in emerging Latin American countries in the first half of the nineteenth
century, or it might happen very quickly as it did in the South of the
United States between 1863 and 1865. And, emancipations were by no
means irreversible-Napoleon reinstated colonial slavery in French possessions
in 1802 after the National Assembly had abolished it in 1794; some
have argued that serfdom in nineteenth century Russia moved closer and
closer to chattel slavery; and slavery reappeared in Nazi Germany by the
early 1940s after the labor form had long ceased to exist in the country.
Indeed, by 1945, there were more than 7.5 million forced laborers in
Europe compared with 6 million slaves in all of the Americas in 1860.
Moreover, the outcomes of emancipations commonly disappointed the
formerly enslaved who witnessed the replacement of slavery by new forms
of labor exploitation and economic dependence and who had their aspirations
for political democracy and social equality checked and crushed. Thus,
this encyclopedia will discuss the rise of segregation, black laws, vagrancy
laws, racial violence, white terror organizations, laws curtailing access to
land ownership, laws restricting labor recruiting, the crop-lien and sharecropping
systems, and the convict labor system, for they are all key components
of the ‘‘working out’’ by all members of the society of the fact of
abolition. In the case of the United States South, this working-out of emancipation
spanned 1865 to 1900 and the largely successful installation by then
of disenfranchisement, segregation, Jim Crow laws, and economic dependence
and vulnerability for blacks. Similar processes for other societies are
identified and described, as well. The encyclopedia’s review of emancipations
will highlight the broad and complicated social and economic unfolding
of the freeing of the enslaved following the passage of abolition.
The Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition is not just about antislavery
or abolition or emancipation. It is about all three. And it is not simply
that New World slavery and its unique brutalities begets antislavery which
begets abolition which begets emancipation. The forces and vectors and
reversals and paradoxes render the dynamic vastly more complicated.
This encyclopedia is structured to be of ready use to a broad audience:
scholars, high school and college students, librarians, teachers, policy advocates,
and the general interested public. The entries are organized alphabetically
and contain cross-references highlighted by bold-face type and listed in
‘‘See also’’ lines at the end of the entry text. Most of the more than 300
entries, many of which are illustrated, conclude with a section entitled ‘‘Further
Readings,’’ which lists additional works-both print and electronic-
which the reader may consult to explore the entry’s topic further and in
more detail. For ease in reference, the entries are also arranged in the Guide
to Related Topics under a number of broad subject headings, such as ‘‘Antislavery
Leaders,’’ ‘‘Gender,’’ ‘‘Law,’’ and ‘‘Politics’’; those searching for more
information on a particular topic can use the guide to quickly identify
related entries that might be of interest. The detailed subject index at the
back of the book will also aid in this identification. A lengthy bibliography
includes a selection of the most important works written on this vast realm.
The Introduction provides a detailed, current overview of the history of
antislavery, abolitionism, and emancipation. Finally, a timeline is included to
afford a chronological overview of the history of these movements and

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