Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy
Table of Contents
Chronology of American Foreign Policy, 1607-2001 / Richard Dean Burns and Louise B. Ketz — African Americans / Brenda Gayle Plummer — Alliances, Coalitions, and Ententes / Warren F. Kimball — Ambassadors, Executive Agents, and Special Representatives / Kenneth J. Grieb — Anti-Imperialism / Robert Buzzanco — Arbitration, Mediation, and Conciliation / Calvin D. Davis — Armed Neutralities / Ian Mugridge — Arms Control and Disarmament / Richard Dean Burns — Arms Transfers and Trade / Michael T. Klare — Asylum / Michael Dunne — Balance of Power / A.E. Campbell and Richard Dean Burns — The Behavioral Approach to Diplomatic History / J. David Singer — Bipartisanship / Randall Woods — Blockades / Frank J. Merli and Robert H. Ferrell — The China Lobby / Warren I. Cohen — Civil War Diplomacy / Kinley Brauer — Cold War Evolution and Interpretations / Walter L. Hixson — Cold War Origins / Anders Stephanson — Cold Warriors / Andrew J. Rotter — Cold War Termination / Thomas R. Maddux — Collective Security / Roland N. Stromberg — Colonialism and Neocolonialism / Edward M. Bennett — Congressional Power / Robert David Johnson — Consortia / Warren I. Cohen — The Constitution / David Gray Adler — Containment / Barton J. Bernstein — Continental Expansion / David M. Pletcher — The Continental System / Marvin R. Zahniser — Covert Operations / John Prados — Cultural Imperialism / Jessica C.E. Gienow-Hecht — Cultural Relations and Policies / Akira Iriye — Decision Making / Valerie M. Hudson — Department Of Defense / Steven L. Rearden — Department of State / Jerry Israel and David L. Anderson — Deterrence / David Coleman — Development Doctrine and Modernization Theory / Nick Cullather — Dictatorships / David F. Schmitz — Dissent in Wars / Russell F. Weigley and David S. Patterson — Doctrines / Marc Jay Selverstone — Dollar Diplomacy / Eugene P. Trani — Domino Theory / Edwin MoÃ¯se — v. 2. — Economic Policy and Theory / David Shreve — Elitism / Alan K. Henrikson — Embargoes and Sanctions / Jerald A. Combs — Environmental Diplomacy / Kurk Dorsey — Exceptionalism / Trevor B. McCrisken — Extraterritoriality / Jules Davids and Jonathan M. Nielson — Foreign Aid / Katherine A.S. Sibley — Freedom of the Seas / Armin Rappaport and William Earl Weeks — Gender / Laura McEnaney — Globalization / Thomas W. Zeiler — Humanitarian Intervention and Relief / Darlene Rivas — Human Rights / T. Christopher Jespersen — Ideology / Jennifer W. See — Immigration / Roger Daniels — Imperialism / David Healy — Intelligence and Counterintelligence / John Prados — Internationalism / Warren F. Kuehl and Gary B. Ostrower — International Law / Christopher C. Joyner — International Monetary Fund and World Bank / Francis J. Gavin — International Organization / Inis L. Claude, Jr., and Klaus Larres — Intervention and Nonintervention / Doris A. Graber — Isolationism / Manfred Jonas — Judiciary Power and Practice / Terrence R. Guay — Loans and Debt Resolution / Richard W. Van Alstyne and Joseph M. Siracusa — Mandates and Trusteeships / Edward M. Bennett — Militarism / William Kamman — The Military-Industrial Complex / James A. Huston — Most-Favored-Nation Principle / Justus D. Doenecke and Michael R. Adamson — Multinational Corporations / Burton I. Kaufman — The Munich Analogy / Joseph M. Siracusa — Narcotics Policy / William O. Walker III — The National Interest / H.W. Brands — Nationalism / Lawrence S. Kaplan — National Security Council / Anna Kasten Nelson — Nativism / Geoffrey S. Smith — Naval Diplomacy / William R. Braisted — Neutralism / T. Michael Ruddy — Neutrality / Thom M. Armstrong — North Atlantic Treaty Organization / Klaus Larres — Nuclear Strategy and Diplomacy / Kenneth J. Hagan and Elizabeth Skinner — v. 3. — Oil / David S. Painter — Open Door Interpretation / William Appleman Williams — Open Door Policy / Mark Atwood Lawrence — Organized Labor / Elizabeth McKillen — Outer Space / Roger Launius — Pacifism / Charles Chatfield — Pan-Americanism / Thomas M. Leonard and Thomas L. Karnes — Party Politics / Fredrik Logevall — Peacemaking / Berenice A. Carroll — Peace Movements / Robert H. Ferrell — Philanthropy / James A. Field, Jr., and Tim Matthewson — Post-Cold War Policy / Richard A. Melanson — Power Politics / Thomas H. Etzold and Robert L. Messer — Presidential Advisers / Albert Bowman and Robert A. Divine — Presidential Power / Alexander DeConde — The Press / Ralph B. Levering and Louis W. Liebovich — Propaganda / Kenneth A. Osgood — Protection of American Citizens Abroad / Burton F. Beers — Protectorates and Spheres of Influence / Raymond A. Esthus — Public Opinion / Melvin Small — Race and Ethnicity / John Snetsinger — Realism and Idealism / Norman A. Graebner — Reciprocity / Robert Freeman Smith — Recognition / Paolo E. Coletta — Refugee Policies / David M. Reimers — Religion / Leo P. Ribuffo — Reparations / Carl P. Parrini and James I. Matray — Revisionism / Athan G. Theoharis — Revolution / Jeremi Suri — Science and Technology / Ronald E. Doel and Zuoyue Wang — Self-Determination / Betty Miller Unterberger — Special-Interest Lobbies / William Slany — Summit Conferences / Theodore A. Wilson — Superpower Diplomacy / Vojtech Mastny — Tariff Policy / Thomas W. Zeiler — Television / Chester Pach — Terrorism and Counterterrorism / Brian Michael Jenkins — Treaties / J.B. Duroselle and Ian J. Bickerton — The Vietnam War and its Impact / Larry Berman and Jason Newman — Wilsonianism / Tony Smith — Wilsonian Missionary Diplomacy / Roger R. Trask.
As in the first edition of the Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy (1978),
this second edition differs markedly from other works of reference dealing
with the history of American foreign policy. Instead of bringing together small
batches of information on many topics, it offers in-depth, original, interpretive
essays commissioned from distinguished scholars who are experts in
their field. Using both narrative and topical structure, the authors explain
concepts, themes, large ideas, significant movements, and distinctive policies
in the history of American foreign relations. Unlike textbook writers, they do
not attempt to cover the full narrative history of those relations, or even to
recount in detail major episodes. These essays may be used to supplement,
and certainly to enrich, the traditional accounts available in history textbooks,
special monographs, or other encyclopedias.
Taken as a group, the essays offer a unique approach to the study of America’s
international connections. Most entries are longer than articles in journals
but shorter than monographs. Their length has allowed authors sufficient space
to probe their topics deeply without including the usual scholarly paraphernalia.
This methodology benefits students in universities, colleges, and high
schools because they can quickly find and read authoritative accounts written
in clear, straightforward prose in three easily available volumes rather than
search through many books and academic journals, often scattered in distant
libraries. Readers wishing to probe a topic in greater depth can use the carefully
constructed bibliographies for more information and for leads to other sources.
In addition, the authors assess the pertinent scholarship on the topics
they discuss and offer differing perspectives on viewing the past. Frequently
they challenge previously established wisdom on a topic because perspectives
in historical writing have always been subject to revision and change. We
have encouraged this kind of investigation and debate because they make
clear to the reader that research and writing in history and the social sciences
are not monolithic. As with most all higher learning, these disciplines are
vibrant and constantly growing. As new information becomes available and
analyzed, the findings of scholars working within these disciplines are subject
to assessment, modification, and even considerable alteration. This kind of
probing and review by peers, like most other scholarly endeavors, enriches
our understanding of the past while advancing the frontiers of knowledge.
In addition to scholarly practice, considerable changes in the conduct
and theory of American foreign policy in the twenty-three years since publication
of the first edition demanded revising and updating the encyclopedia’s
essays and supplementing them with new ones. Institutions such as the
National Security Council, the Department of Defense, and the Central Intelligence
Agency have expanded the government’s decision-making structure
and at times even eclipsed the Department of State as the main organization
for making and carrying out foreign policy.
The mounting diversity of the nation’s population as it has swelled over
the past two decades, primarily as the consequence of new immigration laws,
also has altered foreign policy considerations. While ethnic, racial, religious,
cultural, and other political pressures have long been part of the foreign policymaking
process, special-interest lobbies have proliferated since the 1980s.
Along with their added numbers and greater prominence, these lobbies have
acquired more sophistication and clout than in the past in influencing American
relations with other countries and peoples. The stepped-up internationalization
of finance, the international mobility of industries lured by cheap
labor, the proliferation of multinational corporations, and the mushrooming
of electronic systems across national boundaries also have contributed to a
transformation in Washington’s timing and means of reacting to international
crises, and hence to its shaping of both short- and long-term foreign policies.
These developments, plus the changing demographics of the nation’s
student population, the growth of new educational institutions, and the
remodeling of old ones, have contributed to an expansion of topics that traditionally
came under the heading of foreign policy. At the same time, we have
seen a marked increase in the numbers of those who teach and study the history
of American foreign relations in colleges and universities, both in the
United States and abroad. Equally important, a new generation of historians
who write the books and the articles in academic journals on the subject has
risen to prominence.
These teachers, researchers, and writers have brought fresh perspectives
to the discipline of diplomatic history. They frequently view its historiography
differently than had their predecessors. For example, scholars of the previous
generation wrote extensively on nineteenth-century foreign policy, devoting
considerable attention to topics such as continental expansion, Anglophobia
and Anglophilia, and isolationism, a topic about which they felt deeply and
debated at length as to its impact on policymaking. When dealing with the
twentieth century, they focused mostly on the diplomatic problems of the two
world wars, communism, New Left historiography, and atomic diplomacy.
Although the present generation does not ignore these topics-and it should
not-its field of vision also includes the problems of international terrorism,
“ethnic cleansing,” the end of the Cold War, post-Cold War issues, the environment
as an international concern, and the role of the United States as the
world’s sole superpower.
The extent of this new scholarship contrasts so strikingly with that of
the entries of the first edition, as readers may readily discern, that this edition
deserves consideration as a new project rather than strictly an updating and
revision of the old. We have increased the entries by more than 25 percent and
the new authors by a larger margin. Of the initial contributions, only one has
remained untouched and only a few have survived with modest updating and
revision. We are fortunate that a number of the senior scholars who wrote for
the first edition more than a quarter of a century ago agreed to rework their
essays and offer their wisdom for this new work.
The topics investigated and depth of analysis applied to them in this edition
are also more extensive than in the first and compare favorably with similar
writings on American diplomacy and related subjects in books and
monographs. Of the present 121 essays, 44 are new topics to this edition.
They reflect our expanded coverage and the breadth of the nation’s view of
topics that fall within the range of foreign policy concerns or activities that
influence policymaking. For example, in the first edition we had one entry
that covered the Cold War. Now, as a consequence of the end of the Cold War
in 1991, we have five entries that deal with that topic: “Cold War Origins,”
“Cold War Evolution and Interpretations,” “Cold War Termination,” “Cold
Warriors,” and “Post-Cold War Policy,” in addition to several other Cold
War-centered essays such as “Containment.” Other new essays include
“African Americans,” “Covert Operations,” “Cultural Imperialism,” “Development
Doctrine and Modernization Theory,” “Exceptionalism,” “Gender,”
“Globalization,” “Immigration,” “Narcotics Policy,” “Organized Labor,” “Religion,”
and “Science and Technology.”
More than in the past, we have sought to avoid snippets of information
by combining some of the smaller essays of the first edition into longer pieces.
We have, for instance, combined the essays on the Monroe and Eisenhower
Doctrines in a longer piece that discusses and analyzes all doctrines connected
with foreign policy. To give flavor, often from primary sources, and to
provoke thought, we have included sidebars with most of the essays. To help
readers when they have the need to place topics in a broad chronological context,
we have added a chronology that highlights the significant events in
America’s foreign relations from the colonial era to the present. We have continued
to offer with each essay an up-to-date selected bibliography with annotations,
as well as extensive cross-references at the end of each essay.
We have not devoted separate essays, as has been conventional in studies
of American foreign relations, to accounts of major subjects such as the
diplomacy of the American Revolution, the Louisiana Purchase, the War of
1812, the War with Mexico, the Spanish-American War, World War II, the
Marshall Plan, or the Korean War. We have omitted extended commentary on
these topics because we chose not to focus at length on negotiations that produced
specific treaties or that led to individual conflicts, other than the Civil
War and the Vietnam War. We examine the Vietnam War in depth because it
was the longest in the nation’s history and because of its continuing prominence
in twenty-first-century American foreign policy scholarship. We have
not, however, ignored other wars or downplayed the importance of traditional
topics. Various authors discuss or scrutinize these matters within the context
of the subjects they survey and analyze. The cross-references and a detailed
subject-and-concepts index provide easy access to the standard topics.
Again, as in the first edition, we believe the encyclopedia’s topical framework,
as well as the quality of the essays, will appeal to the growing segment
of the public interested in history, as well as to students, academicians, journalists,
and others who may wish to use this work for reference or for intellectual
stimulation and insight on the significant international aspects of the
American experience. Since the authors have written with free rein, readers
may note conflicting views of the same topic or event. These differences
reflect the flexibility, complexities, and nuances of historical interpretation.
They show also that while historians and social scientists cannot escape
agreement on hard facts such as dates or contents of treaties when known,
even experts can, and often do, clash in their evaluations of the significance of
the data they use and the theories they fashion. This diversity, as the essays
illustrate, enriches our understanding of the history of U.S. foreign policy.
Diversity also influenced our choice of topics. From the start, we realized
that even experts would differ on which topics merited selection. Our criteria
for selecting some topics while excluding others of seemingly comparable
worth evolved out of decisions to bring the subject matter up to date, to avoid
the usual narratives of extended diplomatic negotiations, and to explain in
depth new aspects of foreign relationships as well as the significance of the old.
In doing this, we canvassed various scholars for their views. Ultimately,
though, we had to choose from their recommendations and from our own
experiences what topics we would cover that would be of most value to potential readers. We subjected each essay to careful review and editing to make sure
each fitted our objective. In both selection and editing, we balanced our own
judgments with the recommendations we received from other scholars. We
believe we have been fortunate in attracting to this project some of the finest
scholars on the subject of America’s foreign policies, past and present.
-Alexander DeConde, for the Editors