Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution
1. For the purposes of this Convention, the Mediterranean Sea area shall
mean the maritime waters of the Mediterranean Sea proper, including its
gulfs and seas, bounded to the west by the meridian passing through Cape
Spartel lighthouse, at the entrance of the Straits of Gibraltar, and to
the east by the southern limits of the Straits of the Dardanelles between
the Mehmetcik and Kumkale lighthouses.
2. Except as may be otherwise provided in any Protocol to this
Convention, the Mediterranean Sea area shall not include internal waters
of the Contracting Parties.
For the purposes of this Convention:
(a) ‘Pollution’ means the introduction by man, directly or indirectly,
of substances or energy into the marine environment resulting in such
deleterious effects as harm to living resources, hazards to human health,
hindrance to marine activities including fishing, impairment of quality
for use of sea water and reduction of amenities.
(b) ‘Organization’ means the body designated as responsible for
carrying out secretariat functions pursuant to Article 13 of this
1. The Contracting Parties may enter into bilateral or multilateral
agreements, including regional or sub-regional agreements, for the
protection of the marine environment of the Mediterranean Sea against
pollution, provided that such agreements are consistent with this
Convention and conform to international law. Copies of such agreements
between Contracting Parties to this Convention shall be communicated to
2. Nothing in this Convention shall prejudice the Codification and
development of the law of the sea by the United Nations Conference on the
Law of the Sea convened pursuant to resolution 2750 C (XXV) of the
General Assembly of the United Nations, nor the present or future claims
and legal views of any State concerning the law of the sea and the nature
and extent of coastal and flag State jurisdiction.
1. The Contracting Parties shall individually or jointly take all
appropriate measures in accordance with the provisions of this Convention
and those Protocols in force to which they are party, to prevent, abate
and combat pollution of the Mediterranean Sea area and to protect and
enhance the marine environment in that area.
2. The Contracting Parties shall cooperate in the formulation and
adoption of Protocols, in addition to the protocols opened for signature
at the same time as this Convention, prescribing agreed measures,
procedures and standards for the implementations of this Convention.
3. The Contracting Parties further pledge themselves to promote, within
the international bodies considered to be competent by the Contracting
Parties, measures concerning the protection of the marine environment in
the Mediterranean Sea area from all types and sources of pollution.
POLLUTION CAUSED BY DUMPING FROM SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT
The Contracting Parties shall take all appropriate measures to prevent
and abate pollution of the Mediterranean Sea area caused by dumping from
ships and aircraft.
POLLUTION FROM SHIPS
The Contracting Parties shall take all measures in conformity with
international law to prevent abate and combat pollution of the
Mediterranean Sea area caused by discharges from ships and to ensure the
effective implementation in that area of the rules which are generally
recognized at the international level relating to the control of this
type of pollution.
POLLUTION RESULTING FROM EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION
OF THE Continental Shelf AND THE SEABED AND ITS SUBSOIL
The Contracting Parties shall take all appropriate measures to prevent,
abate and combat pollution of the Mediterranean Sea area resulting from
exploration and exploitation of the Continental Shelf and the seabed and
POLLUTION FROM LAND-BASED SOURCES
The Contracting Parties shall take all appropriate measures to prevent,
abate and combat pollution of the Mediterranean Sea area caused by
discharges from rivers, coastal establishments or outfalls, or emanating
from any other land-based sources within their territories.
COOPERATION IN DEALING WITH POLLUTION EMERGENCIES
1. The Contracting Parties shall co-operate in taking the necessary
measures for dealing with pollution emergencies in the Mediterranean Sea
area, whatever the causes of such emergencies and reducing or eliminating
damage resulting therefrom.
2. Any Contracting Party which becomes aware of any pollution emergency
in the Mediterranean Sea area shall without delay notify the Organization
and, either through the Organization or directly, any Contracting Party
likely to be affected by such emergency.
1. The Contracting Parties shall endeavour to establish, in close
co-operation with the international bodies which they consider competent,
complementary or joint programmes, Including, as appropriate, programmes
at the bilateral or multilateral levels, for pollution monitoring in the
Mediterranean Sea area and shall endeavour to establish a pollution
monitoring system for that area.
2. For this purpose, the Contracting Parties shall designate the
competent authorities responsible for pollution monitoring within areas
under their national jurisdiction and shall participate as far as
practicable in international arrangements for pollution monitoring in
areas beyond national jurisdiction.
3. The Contracting Parties undertake to cooperate in the formulation,
adoption and implementation of such Annexes to this Convention as may be
required to prescribe common procedures and standards for pollution
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL CO-OPERATION
1. The Contracting Parties. undertake as far as possible to co-operate
directly, or when appropriate through competent regional or other
International Organizations , in the fields of science and technology and
to exchange data as well as other scientific information for the purpose
of this Convention.
2. The Contracting Parties undertake as far as possible to develop and
co-ordinate their national research programmes relating to all types of
marine pollution in the Mediterranean Sea area and to co-operate in the
establishment and implementation of regional and other international
research programmes for the purposes of this Convention.
3. The Contracting Parties undertake to co-operate in the provision of
technical and other possible assistance in fields relating to marine
pollution, with priority to be given to the special needs of developing
countries in the Mediterranean region.
LIABILITY AND COMPENSATION
The Contracting Parties undertake to cooperate as soon as possible in the
formulation and adoption of appropriate procedures for he determination
of liability and compensation for damage resulting from the pollution of
the marine environment deriving from violations of the provisions of this
Convention and applicable Protocols.
References and Further Reading
About the Author/s and Reviewer/s
Mentioned in these Entries
Codification, Continental Shelf, Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution 2, Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution 3, Conventions: Chronological Index 1971-1990, International Organizations, Marine and Coastal conventions.