Codification of Law of the Sea

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Codification of Law of the Sea

Pre-UNCLOS III

Ajomo, in the work “New Directions in the Law of the Sea – Collected Papers, Vol.III” (1973) supported this view:

“it must be realised that existing norms governing rights on the sea, like most norms of customary international law, were formed from practice among Western European States before the accession of the new African and Asian States to independence. Many countries of the Third World were not parties to the development of these norms. Further some of these norms have been considered as unfavourable to many countries of Africa and Asia and their aspirations.”

Anand, 7 years later, in his book “Law of the Sea: Caracas and Beyond” (1980), in relation to the traditional freedom of the seas, writes:

“Most of the coastal States are seriously questioning the value of the doctrine of freedom of the seas, which, howsoever useful it might have been in the past, has become “tyrannical” today. It is no longer valid to claim that the freedom of fishing is in the interests of the international community when millions of human beings are suffering and dying from lack of proteins while others are making disproportionate profits. Nor can unlimited freedom of navigation or scientific research be accepted when what is sought is simply protection of the interests of a small number of States.”

Codification of Law of the Sea

Embracing mainstream international law, this section on codification of law of the sea explores the context, history and effect of the area of the law covered here.

Resources

Further Reading

  • The entry “law of the sea, codification of” in the Parry and Grant Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (currently, the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law, 2009), Oxford University Press
  • Adede, A.O. (1987) The System for Settlement of Disputes under United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: a drafting history and a commentary. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.
  • Anand, R.P. (ed.) (1980) Law of the Sea: Caracas and Beyond. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
  • Anand, R.P. (1987) International Law and the Developing Countries: Confrontation or Co-operation? Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.
  • Anand, R.P. (2000) Non-European Sources of Law of the Sea, Pacem in Maribus XXVIII, 9–20.
  • Anghie, A. and Chimni, B.S. (2003) Third World Approaches to International Law and Individual Responsibility in Internal Conflicts. Chinese Journal of International Law, 77–103.
  • Bederman, D.J. (2008) The Old Isolationism and the New Law of the Sea: Reflections on Advice and Consent for UNCLOS. Harvard International Law Journal online 49, 21–7, www.harvardilj.org/online
  • Borgese, E.M. (2001) Caird Medal Address. Marine Policy 25(6), 391–7.
  • Brown, E.D. (1994) The International Law of the Sea, Introductory Manual, Vol.1. Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing Company.
  • Brown, E.D. (1997) Dispute Settlement and the Law of the Sea: the UN Convention Regime. Marine Policy 21(1), 17–43.
  • Bull, H., Kingsbury, B. and Roberts, A. (eds.) (1990) Hugo Grotius and International Relations. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Butler, W. (1971) The Soviet Union and the Law of the Sea. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
  • Caminos, H. and Molitor, M.R. (1985) Progressive Development of International Law and the Package Deal. American Journal of International Law 79, 871–90.
  • Churchill, R.R. and Lowe, A.V. (1999) Law of the Sea. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  • Churchill, R., Simmonds, K.R. and Welch, J. (eds.) (1973) New Directions in the Law of the Sea – Collected Papers, Vol.III. Dobbs Ferry: Oceana Publications Inc.
  • Dean, A.H. (1958) The Geneva Conference on the Law of the Sea: What was Accomplished. American Journal of International Law 52, 607–28.
  • Duff, J. (2004) A Note on the United States and the Law of the Sea: Looking Back and Moving Forward. Ocean Development and International Law 35, 195–219.
  • Egede, E. (2004) The Outer Limits of the Continental Shelf: African States and the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention. Ocean Development and International Law 35, 157–78.
  • Eiriksson, G. (2000) International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
  • Finlay, L. (1970) The Outer Limit of the Continental Shelf: A Rejoinder to Professor Louis Henkin. American Journal of International Law 64, 42–61.
  • Goldie, L.F.E. (1972) A Lexicographical Controversy – The Word “Adjacent” in Article 1 of the Continental Shelf Convention. American Journal of International Law 66, 829–35.
  • Henkin, L. (1969) International Law and “the interests”: the Law of the Seabed. American Journal of International Law 63, 504–17.
  • Kent, S.K. (1954) Historical Origins of the Three-Mile Limit, American Journal of International Law 48, 537–53.
  • Koskenniemi, M. and Lehto, M. (1996) The Privilege of Universality – International Law, Economic Ideology and Seabed Resources. Nordic Journal of International Law 65(3–4), 533–55.
  • Kratochwil, F. (1986) Of Systems, Boundaries and Territoriality: An Inquiry into the Formation of the State. World Politics 39(1), 27–52.
  • Kwiatkowska, B. (1991) Creeping Jurisdiction Beyond 200 miles in the Light of the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention and State Practice. Ocean Development and International Law 22, 153–87.
  • Mahmoudi, S. (1987) The Law of Deep Sea-Bed Mining – A Study of the Progressive Development of International Law Concerning the Management of the Polymetallic Nodules of the Deep Sea-Bed. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International.
  • Mcdorman, T.L. (2002) The Role of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf: A Technical Body in a Political World. The International Journal of Marine & Coastal Law, 17, 301–24.
  • Murphy, J. (1976) The Politics of Manganese Nodules: International Considerations and Domestic Legislation. San Diego Law Review 16, 531–54.
  • O’Connell, D.P. (1982) International Law of the Sea. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Oude Elferink, A.G. (2002) Continental Shelf of Antarctica: Implications of the Requirement to Make a Submission to the CLCS under Article 76 of the LOS Convention. International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 17, 485–520.
  • Oxman, B.H. and Stevenson, J.R. (1974) The Preparations for the Law of the Sea Conference. American Journal of International Law 68, 1–32.
  • Oxman, B.H. and Stevenson, J.R. (1975b) The Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea: The 1975 Geneva Session. American Journal of International Law 69(4), 763–97.
  • Oxman, B.H. (1978) The Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea: The 1977 New York Session. American Journal of International Law 72(1), 57–83.
  • Oxman, B.H. (1981) The Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea: The Ninth Session (1980). American Journal of International Law 75(2), 211–56.
  • Oxman, B.H. (1994) The 1994 Agreement and the Convention. American Journal of International Law 88(4), 687–96.
  • Parry, C. (1965) The Sources and Evidences of International Law. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  • Rembe, N.S. (1980) Africa and the International Law of the Sea, Alphen aan den Rijn: Sijthoff and Noordhoff.
  • Scott, J.B. (ed.) (1925) Grotius’ De Jure ac Belli Pacis in Classics of International Law, No. 3, Vol. II Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Treves, T. (1998) Law of the Sea “System of Institutions”. Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law 2, 325–340.
  • Wang, J. (1992) Handbook on Ocean Law and Politics, New York: Greenwood Press.

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