Judicial Review

Introduction The U.S. case Marbury v. Madison (1803) held that the power of a court to decide what is the meaning of the American Constitution was implicit in an independent judiciary. This power of judicial review in the U.S. was a unique feature of the U.S. constitutionalism well into the […]

Biomass

Biomass (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Biomass means: The total mass of all living organisms within a biological community. Resources See Also Energy Utilities Natural Resources Energy Clean Energy

Civil Union

Same-Sex Marriage and Civil Union: Main Elements The coverage of Same-Sex Marriage and Civil Union includes the following element(s): The Full Faith and Credit Clause and the Defense of Marriage Act For detailed information on this issue, please read the corresponding entry. References See […]

Family Planning

Family Planning (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Family Planning means: implies the ability of individuals and couples to anticipate and attain their desired number of children and the spacing and timing of their births. FP is achieved through contraception capable of […]

Epidemiology

Epidemiology (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Epidemiology means: _pidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems. Social epidemiology has […]

Georgia

Georgia in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): In 2011, the United States continued to support the Geneva Discussions and the efforts of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe […]

Welfare State

Concept of Welfare State Note: explore also the meaning of this legal term in the American Ecyclopedia of Law. Literature Review on Welfare State In the Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, [1] Paul B. Kirby offers the following summary about the topic of Welfare State: […]

Desertification

Desertification (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Desertification means: transformation of arid and semiarid land into desert, generally due to overgrazing, deforestation, poor irrigation and tilling practices, climate change, or a combination of these factors. Embracing […]

Arctic Council Agreement

Maritime Search and Rescue: Arctic Council Agreement in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): The Arctic Council held its Seventh Ministerial Meeting in Nuuk, Greenland March 11-12, 2011. Secretary […]

Diplomatic Property

Under the United States' International Agreements, the Diplomatic Property of the Congo's United Nations Mission is Immune From Attachment or Execution in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): […]

Hyv's

Concept of Hyv's An introductory definition of Hyv's is provided here: high-yielding varieties of agricultural plants, genetically designed to produce higher quantities of product with the aid of fertilizer, pesticides, and mechanized agricultural methods Resources See Also Foregin […]

Trafficking in Persons Report

Trafficking in Persons Report in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On June 27, 2011, the Department of State released the 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report pursuant to § 110(b)(1) of the […]

Extradition Treaty Requirements

Extradition of Fugitive Alleging Failure to Comply With Requirements of Extradition Treaty in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): Habeas corpus, it is well known, "is not a neutral proceeding in […]

Nuclear Smuggling

Joint Action Plans to Combat Nuclear Smuggling in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): In 2011, the United States continued its Nuclear Smuggling Outreach Initiative ("NSOI"), with negotiations […]

Cultural Property Import Restrictions

Cultural Property: Import Restrictions in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): In 2011, the United States took steps to protect the cultural property of Italy, Colombia, and Bolivia by extending import […]

Actions Regarding Syria

Actions Regarding Syria in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): Throughout 2011, the Human Rights Council focused on the human rights crisis in Syria, where the Government of Syria repeatedly used […]

Contempt Sanctions

Availability of Contempt Sanctions in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On March 15, 2011, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit decided that contempt sanctions against a […]

Nonproliferation Agreements

Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): Effective May 23, 2011, the Department of State imposed sanctions on 14 entities and two individuals under the […]

Khalid Sheik Mohammed

Khalid Sheik Mohammed in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On April 4, 2011, Attorney General Holder announced that he was referring to military commissions the prosecutions of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed […]

Bankruptcies

Chapter 11 Bankruptcies Explained in the United States of America (In the U.S. law) References See Also Business Law (in international or comparative law) Bankruptcy (in international or comparative law) Resources See Also Business Law Bankruptcy

The Jury Verdict

The Jury Verdict: Summary in the United States of America (In the U.S. law) In this entry, The Jury Verdict covers: Jury Instructions Outside Influence on Juries Split Juries and Hung Juries Announcing the Verdict The Jury Verdict: Main Elements in the United States of America (In the […]

Libertarianism

Libertarianism Definition Libertarianism, political philosophy emphasizing the rights of the individual. The doctrine of libertarianism stresses the right to self-ownership and, by extension, the right to private ownership of material resources and property. Advocates oppose any form of […]

Codification

Policy makers, judges, citizens all deplore the increasing complexity of law. Codification is traditionally one of the best ways to sustain the dynamic and necessary evolution of laws.

Meaning of "Code”

Lord Scarman once provided this […]

Nml Capital V. Spaceport Systems

Nml Capital v Spaceport Systems in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): See Section A.2.a.(1), supra, for discussion of this case considering whether Argentina's contribution to a satellite for […]