Technical expertise that a firm has acquired through its operations and to which it has proprietary rights, whether the knowledge is patented or not. This expertise may consist of blueprints, plans, and manuals, as well as technical assistance….

Optical Character Recognition

Optical Character Recognition (ocr) Device in Election Law Scanning system that takes images and uses computer software to recognise the shapes of printed or handwritten characters, such as numbers and letters, and stores them as computer-readable data. OCR is typically used to convert printed […]

Social Media

Social Media Legal Guidelines and the Electronic Commerce Social Media Legal Guidelines in the Online Business Law Issues and Challenges in Enterprise Social Media, the Law and other Social Sciences Contemporary organizations face the challenge of collaboration among the widely dispersed […]


Report And Recommendation in Canadian Procedural Law Find materials in the Canadian legal Encyclopedia that anlyze Report And Recommendation. Advanced Recommender Systems, the Law and other Social Sciences This chapter presents a brief and systematic overview of four major advanced recommender […]


Governance in Election Law Manner of understanding and implementing authority. Characteristics of good governance are a high level of organisation and efficiency. It is measured by many different criteria: delivery, transparency, participation and sharing of responsibilities. Literature Review […]


Prisoner Vote in Election Law Some countries allow prisoners to vote. Given that they are usually incarcerated far from their electoral constituencies and obviously cannot leave, polling centres are set up inside jails so that they may exercise their right to vote. Resources See Also Social […]

Joint Venture

Summary of Joint Venture

A business enterprise with more than one equity participant; for example, an agreement between a German firm and a U.S. firm to capitalize jointly a new factory in Venezuela. Many countries impose restrictions on joint ventures; these restrictions may take the form […]

Gold Standard

Summary of Gold Standard

A system under which a nation's currency is freely convertible into gold. The quantity of gold per unit of currency is fixed by law. Most major trading nations, however, abandoned the gold standard because of the constraints it imposes upon liquidity, although […]


Introduction to Copyright Copyright, branch of law granting authors the exclusive privilege to reproduce, distribute, perform, or display their creative works. The goal of copyright law is to encourage authors to invest effort in creating new works of art and literature. Copyright is one […]

Exchange Control

The system by which a government regulates possession of and dealings in foreign exchange. The principal objective of exchange control is to allocate foreign exchange to necessary imports and expenditures. Normally, the finance ministry or central bank is invested with the authority to issue […]

Economic Integration

Summary of Economic Integration

The process of unifying two or more national economies through conscious coordination of trade, fiscal, and monetary activities. Economic integration is normally preceded by the reduction or abolition of tariffs, quotas, and similar constraints upon trade […]

Economic Union

Summary of Economic Union

Also known as an economic community, an advanced form of economic integration on the part of several states. The economic union incorporates the features of a Common market (read this and related legal terms for further details)—unrestricted free trade among […]


Distributor in International Trade Meaning of Distributor, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): An independent person or legal entity that sell goods locally on behalf of a principal. Distributors can be distinguished from agents as distributors buy the goods […]

Electronic Commerce

The Conduct and Regulation of Internet commerce in the Context of Internet Law Read, in this legal Encyclopedia, about the topic of this section, and, specially, about Antitrust Restrictions on the Conduct of Electronic Commerce Electronic Commerce in Cyberlaw Antitrust Restrictions on the […]


The Case of Schnaebelé: International Incident In the book "International Incidents for Discussion in Conversation Classes", in relation to this subject, L. Oppenheim wrote in 1909: On April 21st, 1887, Schnaebelé, the Commissionary of Police of Pagny-sur-Moselle, […]

Common Law

Introduction to Common Law "Common Law, term used to refer to the main body of English unwritten law that evolved from the 12th century onward. The name comes from the idea that English medieval law, as administered by the courts of the realm, reflected the "common"customs of […]

Freight Rate

LCL/fcl in International Trade Meaning of LCL/fcl, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): A way of quoting container freight rates in which the carrier agrees to pack the container at the outset (LCL) but unpacking at destination must be carried out by the […]


Municipality in Election Law A local administrative division composed of several villages or sometimes city districts, usually represented by an elected body which protects its interests and oversees the administration of its affairs. A municipality is usually financially and administratively […]


Disputed Fisheries: International Incident In the book "International Incidents for Discussion in Conversation Classes", in relation to this subject, L. Oppenheim wrote in 1909: An island rises in the open sea three and a half miles from the shore of state A and is acquired through […]


"The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn." — Alvin Toffler See Education links History of Education In the following treatment of this subject, the theory and early history of education is […]

Human Rights

Introduction to Human Rights "Since World War II international law has become increasingly concerned with the protection of human rights. It has provided improved procedures for that purpose within the UN. This new emphasis has also been manifested in the adoption by the UN of the […]

Racial Discrimination

International Convention on The Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (icerd) in Election Law Adopted in 1965, ICERD is a United Nations convention that commits its members to the elimination of racial discrimination and the promotion of understanding among all races. Brown v Board […]


High Seas The high seas are governed by several fundamental principles. First, no State may purport to assert sovereignty over any part of the high seas. Second, all States have the right to exercise the freedoms of the seas, including freedoms of navigation, freedom of overflight, freedom to […]


Peacekeeping Further Reading A concise encyclopedia of the United Nations (including Peacekeeping , H Volger, KA Annan -2010) The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations (TG Weiss – 2007) International Law: A Dictionary (including Peacekeeping , Boczek, Boleslaw Adam -2005) Peacekeeping and […]

Free Trade Area

Summary of Free Trade Area

An association of states that seeks to overcome impediments to trade among members by reducing or eliminating tariffs among the participants. The members of a free trade area do not maintain a common external tariff nor do they (usually) provide for the free flow […]

Supreme Court

Supreme Court in Election Law Highest court in a country's judicial system. The electoral law can give it jurisdiction in some election-related disputes. The U.S. Supreme Court The Supreme Court is the highest court of the United States, and the only one specifically created by the […]

Export Processing Zone

Summary of Export Processing Zone

A special type of Foreign Trade Zone (read this and related legal terms for further details) within which certain exemptions from duties, taxes, and regulations are granted as an inducement to export-oriented manufacturing. Customarily a manufacturer within […]

Cumulative Voting

Cumulative Voting in Constitutional Law From the Comparative Constitutions Project: A semiproportional system of voting in which each voter has as many votes as there are seats to fill, but each voter may give all of his/her votes to one candidates, or split them up as s/he desires. Cumulative […]


Introduction to Territory Territory, name given in the United States to a partially self-governing section of the national domain that has not been granted statehood. The major U.S. territories are the District of Columbia on the mainland; American Samoa and Guam in the Pacific; and the Virgin […]

Party List

Party List in Election Law List of candidates submitted by a political party. Party List and Europe There is an entry on party list in the European legal encyclopedia. Resources See Also Further Reading Entry "Party List" in the work "A Concise Encyclopedia of the European […]

Conflict of Laws

Conflict of Laws in International Trade Meaning of Conflict of Laws, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): Differences between the laws of different countries or other jurisdictions that become significant in determining which law will apply when individuals […]


Bigamy, in law, the criminal offense of marrying while one is still a partner in a valid earlier marriage. A person is not guilty of bigamy, however, if the prior marriage has been terminated by divorce or annulment. Bigamy is a crime in most Western nations, including the United States, the […]