Summary of Delivery

The act whereby the owner of a vessel gives operational control over to the charterer.

(Main Author: William J. Miller)

In the United States For information about Delivery in the context of international trade, click here Delivery in International Trade Meaning […]


Veto Definition (Lat. I forbid). Veto may be defined as the refusal of the executive body of a country whose assent is necessary to let pass a law or measure approbed already by the legislative body. See veto in the legal dictonary. In Europe The veto power of the British sovereign has […]


Joint Marketing Arrangements with Special Groups and the Electronic Commerce Joint Marketing Arrangements with Special Groups in the Online Business Law Literature Review on Ethics and Marketing In the Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, [1] Ali Besharat, Ryan J. […]

Health Care

Health Care in the CEDAW Article 12: of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) stipulates, in relation to Health Care, that all countries are required to eliminate discrimination in the field of health care. Women should be ensured equal access […]


The Legal History of Suicide in Chinese LawThis section provides an overview of Suicide in Chinese Law ResourcesSee AlsoLegal Biography Legal Traditions Historical Laws History of Law Further Reading Suicide in Chinese Law in the Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History (Oxford […]


Storage in International Trade Meaning of Storage, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): The keeping of goods in a warehouse.

International Finance Corporation

International Finance Corporation Outline The IFC is part of the World Bank. It came into force in 1956 pursuant to the Articles of Agreement of the International Finance Corporation of 1955. Its main function is to facilitate the supply of funds to private enterprises in order to encourage or […]


The "Maori King": International Incident In the book "International Incidents for Discussion in Conversation Classes", in relation to terminox, L. Oppenheim wrote in 1909: The vessel, the Maori King, was purchased in March, 1906, by Messrs. Ginsburg and Co., a Russian […]

Proportional Representation

Introduction to Proportional Representation Proportional Representation, electoral system designed to produce legislative bodies in which the number of seats held by any group or party is proportional to the number of votes cast for members of that group during the most recent election. The […]


Maintenance in International Trade Meaning of Maintenance, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): The work of keeping something in proper condition, care or upkeep including: taking steps to avoid something breaking down (preventative maintenance) and bringing […]


Who Becomes a Refugee? Introduction to Refugee People leave their home countries for many reasons. Sometimes they are fleeing poverty, or they hope to find a better life in another place. People who migrate for economic reasons, however, are not considered refugees. Yet economic migrants […]

Freedom of Association

Freedom of Association in Constitutional Law From the Comparative Constitutions Project: Freedom of association is the right to meet and interact freely, without the interference of the state or others. This is slightly different than freedom of assembly, because assembly refers to the ability […]


Summary of Carrier

A firm engaged in the business of transporting persons or goods for profit. Railroads, trucking companies, airlines, and steamship operators are examples of carriers. Carriers can be divided into three categories: the private carrier moves only its own goods or those of […]


Eco-label in International Trade Meaning of Eco-label, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): A voluntary mark awarded by the European Union to producers who can show that their product is significantly less harmful to the environment than similar products.


A codification of terms used in foreign trade contracts. Local customs and usage imported variations in meaning for such common terms as F.A.S., C.I.F., et cetera, often resulting in disputes between buyer and seller as to the respective obligations of each. In 1936 the Paris-based […]


Introduction to Damages Damages, an award of money that a court of law requires be given to one who has suffered a loss, injury, or invasion of a legal right (as when one party to a contract does not fulfill its obligations) as a result of the act of another. Damages may be compensatory or […]

Managing Director

Managing Director in International Trade Meaning of Managing Director, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): A managing director is someone who is responsible for the daily operations of a company, organization, or corporate division. In some countries, the […]

Representative Democracy

Representative Democracy in Election Law Democracy in which the people do not exercise power directly but rather through representatives, elected periodically through free, secret and universal suffrage. Concept of Representative Democracy Note: explore also the meaning of this legal term in […]


International Law: Matters of International Concern: Peace and Security Introduction to Peace Among the central aims of the UN are the maintenance of peace and security and the suppression of acts of aggression. The principles of the UN Charter prohibit the use of force to settle disputes and […]

Code of Conduct

Code of Conduct and the GATT Policy Negotiations In relation to the GATT Policy Negotiations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following explanation and/or definition of Code of Conduct: An international agreement establishing standards of behavior –by countries, corporations, or […]


Legal Issues Customs were the original form of international commercial law. As we have seen in the history of lex mercatoria, the customs existed before any statute of commercial law was made and were often the basis for legislation.(1) Customs in International Trade Meaning of Customs, […]

Conflict of Interest

Conflict of Interest in Election Law Personal, direct or indirect interest of a member or staff of an Election Management Body (EMB), whether financial or otherwise, that is related to any matter that comes up for decision before that EMB. In such a case, the member or staff of the EMB […]

Combined Nomenclature

Combined nomenclature (CN) and the Treaties of the European Union Description of Combined nomenclature (CN) provided by the European Union Commission: A systematic list of goods descriptions based on the Harmonized System, serving for the purposes of the Common Customs Tariff, external trade […]

Direct Democracy

Direct Democracy Instrument in Election Law Method by which citizens can participate directly in the political decision making process. It may take one of three forms: 1. Citizens voting on a public policy proposal originating from somewhere outside the legislature (referendum); 2. Citizens […]

International Development Association

International Development Association Outline The IDA is one of the two affiliates of the World Bank. It came into existence in 1962 under the Articles of Agreement of the International Development Association of 1960. Its main function is to provide loans on more favourable and flexible terms […]


The Legal History of Constitution This section provides an overview of Constitution Constitution in Election Law Set of fundamental texts which establish a form of government, regulate the relationship between the governing and the governed and define the public power structure. A constitution […]


Preliminary Examination in E.U. Patent System The initial study of an application by an official in the patent office to check that the specification is properly arranged and for preparing search reports. Examination in Chief in Canadian Procedural Law Examination in Chief and related […]

Territorial Jurisdiction

Territorial Units treatment in the Convention on Law Applicable to Products Liability Articles 12-14 (of the Convention on Law Applicable to Products Liability) are directed to the peculiar problems of States which are composed of territorial units, each with its own rules of law on the […]

Flag of Convenience

Flag Of Convenience Summary of Flag Of Convenience

Registration of a vessel in a country other than that of the ship's owners, because the registering nation affords the owners tax or other benefits not available in the home country.

(Main Author: William J. Miller)


Child Pornography

Hello "Research and policy on the criminal aspects of pornography has in most recent years focused almost all of its attention on child pornography, especially as a result of the important role played therein by the internet as the medium that has greatly eased the distribution of such […]

Freedom of Assembly

Introduction to Freedom of Assembly Freedom of Assembly, the right of people to gather together peaceably. Freedom of assembly is related to freedom of religion and freedom of speech, as well as the right to petition (formally request) the government to change its policies. Together these […]


Criminal Law: Crimes Against Sexual Morality: Prostitution Introduction to Prostitution The crime of prostitution involves the exchange of sexual contact or favors for money or its equivalent. The crime of pandering involves the promotion of prostitution by enticing or procuring persons to […]

Consumer Protection

The Legal History of Consumer Protection This section provides an overview of Consumer Protection Privacy, Security and Internet Advertising in the Context of Internet Law Read, in this legal Encyclopedia, about the topic of this section, and, specially, about Introduction to Consumer […]


Simulation in Election Law Exercise carried out prior to an election to test the equipment and the implementation procedures for election day. Also known as mock polling, this can help to train polling staff and demonstrate voting procedures to voters. Resources See Also Vocational Training […]


"From a criminological perspective, pornography has been investigated in its relationship to criminal behavior or as a form of crime itself. Research on the relation between pornography and crime has primarily focused on the impact which the exposure to pornographic materials has on […]


Default in International Trade Meaning of Default, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): In international trade, default is failure to meet the legal obligations (or conditions) of a loan. A national sovereign default is the failure or refusal of a government […]


Overdraft in International Trade Meaning of Overdraft, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): A deficit in a bank account caused by drawing more money that is credited to it. Note, Overdraft, Interest From the book The Clergyman's Hand-book of Law, about […]


Globalization Further Reading A concise encyclopedia of the United Nations (including Globalization , H Volger, KA Annan -2010) The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations (TG Weiss – 2007) International Law: A Dictionary (including Globalization , Boczek, Boleslaw Adam -2005) Globalization […]


Summary of Embargo A suspension of trade between nations, usually for political reasons. The term embargo is also applied to a governmental edict prohibiting entry or departure from the nation's ports of vessels flying the flag of a particular country. In those cases where ports are closed […]


Credibility in Election Law In the context of elections, voter confidence in the electoral process, including voter registration, the electoral system, procedures, vote count, etc., and also in the main actors: political parties, candidates, the Election Management Body (EMB) and the media, […]