Public Administration

Political Science: Fields in Political Science: Public Administration Introduction to Public Administration Political scientists interested in public administration study government organizations and their relation to other parts of government. Political scientists investigate how these […]

Political Parties

Introduction to Political PartiesPolitical Parties, organizations that mobilize voters on behalf of a common set of interests, concerns, and goals. In many nations, parties play a crucial role in the democratic process. They formulate political and policy agendas, select candidates, conduct…

International Trade

International Political Economy Trends: International Trade Introduction to International Trade In the 21st century, international trade has grown to 20 percent of the world's total production of goods and services-around $6.5 trillion per year. This volume of trade is almost seven times […]

Parliamentary Committee

Parliamentary Law Committee Work

Introduction to Parliamentary Committee

The work of deliberative bodies is usually prepared by means of committees. These may be standing committees appointed for a definite time; select committees appointed for a special purpose; or committees of the…


Introduction to Ordinance Ordinance, statute or regulation, especially one enacted by a municipal government." (1) Concept of Ordinance Note: explore also the meaning of this legal term in the American Ecyclopedia of Law. Resources See Also State Government Local Government Local […]


Introduction to Injunction Injunction, generally, an order or decree in the law of equity, requiring a defendant to refrain from committing a specific act, either in process or threatened, injurious to the plaintiff. Injunctions are granted on the usual grounds for equitable actions, namely, […]

Freedom of the Press

Introduction to Freedom of the Press Freedom of the Press, immunity of the communications media-including newspapers, books, magazines, radio, and television-from government control or censorship. Freedom of the press is regarded as fundamental to individual rights. Without free media, a free […]


Introduction to Welfare Welfare, programs aimed at helping people unable to support themselves fully or earn a living. Welfare recipients include elderly people, people with mental or physical disabilities, and those needing help to support dependent children. People in the United States most […]


Introduction to Delinquency Delinquency, criminal or antisocial behavior of juveniles. Juvenile delinquents are usually considered to be in need of treatment, rehabilitation, or discipline. The term delinquency also applies to payments that are overdue." (1) Related Fields Related […]

Social Legislation

Introduction to Social Legislation

Social Legislation, generic term used to denote the body of laws enacted in various countries, chiefly in the 19th and 20th centuries, to correct specific social and economic maladjustments. In general, such laws are designed to raise the standard of living…


Zionism Historical Background: The Rise of Modern Anti-Semitism

Introduction to Anti-Semitism

Political emancipation, however, proved to be a false dawn. In the second half of the 19th century organized anti-Semitic parties emerged in Germany and Austria-Hungary. In Russia, where the…

Public Health

Introduction to Public Health Public Health, protection and improvement of the health of entire populations through community-wide action, primarily by governmental agencies. The goals of public health are to prevent human disease, injury, and disability; protect people from environmental […]

Public Law

Law Public Law Introduction to Public Law Public law concerns the relationships within government and those between governments and individuals. Because the Roman codes were almost entirely limited to the private area, public law is usually not codified. In civil-law countries, separate […]

Criminal Negligence

Negligence Criminal Negligence

Introduction to Criminal Negligence

An individual may be guilty of criminal negligence if the act is committed while violating a particular statute. For example, a statute requiring the operation of an automobile at a limited speed in a school zone dur…

Political Propaganda

Propaganda Political Propaganda

Introduction to Political Propaganda

Propaganda for distinctly political ends is as old as history. The Bible, for example, relates that the Assyrian king Sennacherib attempted to terrify the Kingdom of Judah into surrendering by the use of threatening…


Introduction to Contract Contract, in law, an agreement that creates an obligation binding upon the parties thereto. The essentials of a contract are as follows: (1) mutual assent; (2) a legal consideration, which in most instances need not be pecuniary; (3) parties who have legal capacity […]

International Relations

Political Science: Fields in Political Science: International Relations Introduction to International Relations International relations is the study of the international system, which involves interactions between nations, international organizations, and multinational corporations. The two […]


Socialist Law The inclusion of "Socialist law", in the past, was unavoidable in certain legal classifications. Marxist-Leninist thought still plays a sometimes significant role in the legal organization of certain countries. The criterion which governed the creation of a category […]


Introduction to Ownership Ownership, interest in property vested for one's own benefit. The legal right to possession." (1) Resources See Also Enterprise Joint Enterprise Joint Venture Resources See Also Equitable ownership Exclusive ownership Hold Incident of ownership Interest […]


Introduction to Evidence Evidence, the means by which disputed facts are proved to be true or untrue in any trial before a court of law or an agency that functions like a court. Because American law is committed to a rational rather than a formalistic system of evidence, no value is assigned […]


Introduction to Geopolitics

Geopolitics, study of the impact of geography on relations between nations. Swedish political scientist Rudolf Kjellén first used the term geopolitics in 1899. Kjellén believed that the economic, political, and military characteristics of nations der…

Constitutional Law

Introduction to Constitutional Law Constitutional Law, system of fundamental principles on the organization of a country's government and the limitations of its powers. In the United States, constitutional law refers to legal rights that are directly addressed in the Constitution of the […]


Introduction to Immigration Immigration, the movement of people into another nation with the intention of residing there permanently. The contrasting term emigration refers to the movement of people permanently leaving a nation. Immigration is a worldwide phenomenon. From the 17th century to […]

Lome Convention

Introduction to Lome Convention Lomé Convention, trade and aid agreement between the European Union (EU) and 70 African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries, first signed in February 1975 in Lomé, Togo. The Lomé Convention provided a framework of cooperation between […]

Political Science

Introduction to Political Science Political Science, the systematic study of and reflection upon politics. Politics usually describes the processes by which people and institutions exercise and resist power. Political processes are used to formulate policies, influence individuals and […]

Hit and Run

Introduction to Hit and Run

Hit and Run, military action designed to minimize losses by striking quickly and then retreating with equal speed. A hit-and-run motor vehicle accident is a violation in which one party leaves the scene without rendering aid or identifying themselves." (1)


What is Terrorism? Government Definitions of Terrorism Introduction to Terrorism Legal statutes in most countries around the world regard terrorism as a crime. Yet there is considerable variation in how these laws define terrorism, even in countries whose laws derive from a common origin. […]

Kyoto Protocol

Introduction to Kyoto Protocol Kyoto Protocol, international treaty adopted in 1997 that sets concrete targets for developed countries to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming, also known as climate change. The Ky_to Protocol is a supplementary treaty to the […]

Criminal Procedure

Introduction to Criminal Procedure Criminal Procedure, body of law regulating the inquiry into whether a person has violated criminal law. Criminal procedure governs the investigation of crimes; the arrest, charging, and trial of accused criminals; and the sentencing of those convicted (found […]

European Court of Human Rights

Introduction to European Court of Human Rights European Court of Human Rights, court established in 1950 by the signatories to the European Convention on Human Rights to police oppressive activities of governments. In the aftermath of World War II (1939-1945), and in particular the atrocities […]

International Currency

Trends in International Political Economy: International Currency

Introduction to International Currency

Explosive growth in the exchange of foreign currencies in international markets has also transformed the global political economy (see foreign exchange). Advanced telecommunicatio…


Introduction to Mortgage Mortgage, legal instrument that pledges a house or other real estate as security for repayment of a loan. By providing a guarantee that the loan will be paid back, a mortgage enables a person to buy property without having the funds to pay for it outright. If the […]


Introduction to War War, in international law, armed conflict between two or more governments or states. When such conflicts assume global proportions, they are known as world wars. War between different parts or factions of the same nation is called civil war. A rebellion is not legally […]

National Socialism

Introduction to National Socialism

National Socialism, commonly called Nazism, German political movement initiated in 1920 with the organization of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, or NSDAP), also called the Nazi Party. The mov…

Public Policy

Political Science: Fields in Political Science: Public Policy Introduction to Public Policy The field of public policy involves the study of specific policy problems and governmental responses to them. Political scientists involved in the study of public policy attempt to devise solutions […]


Introduction to Counterfeiting Counterfeiting, criminal offense of making an imitation of an article with intent to defraud others into accepting it as the genuine item. The term counterfeit is used most frequently to denote imitations of coined money or of the paper currency of a government […]

Roman Law

Introduction to Roman Law Roman Law, in general usage, legal system developed by the Romans from the time of their first codification of law, known as the Law of the Twelve Tables (see Twelve Tables, Law of the), in 450 bc to the death of Justinian I, ruler of the Byzantine Empire, in ad […]

Arms Control

Functions of the UN: Maintenance of International Peace and Security Arms Control Introduction to Arms Control The UN charter authorizes the Security Council to plan for worldwide disarmament and arms control. To help achieve those goals, the UN has sponsored arms control negotiations in […]