Advertising

PPC Advertising in Electronic Commerce PPC Advertising in the Online Business Law Resources See Also Further Reading Information related to advertising in the Max Planck Encyclopedia of International Law(MPEPIL), Germany, United Kingdom Resources See Also Internet Discovery Internet […]

Patent

Summary of Patent

A grant issued by a governmental authority to an inventor permitting, for a fixed number of years, an exclusive right to the invention. The grant includes the prerogative of preventing others from making, using, or selling the invention covered. Through various […]

Universal Suffrage

Universal Suffrage in Election Law A fundamental principle in democratic elections, by which every citizen has the right to vote in periodic and regular elections and referenda. This right must be established by law. Restrictions may apply (minimum age, mental capacity), but the right to vote […]

Gats

Gats in International Trade Meaning of Gats, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): The General Agreement on Trade Services is a World Trade Organization agreement that is the first multilateral agreement provide legally enforceable rules covering all […]

Profit

The Legal History of Profit in Islamic Law This section provides an overview of Profit in Islamic Law Profit in International Trade Meaning of Profit, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): The financial gain resulting from selling goods or services at a price […]

Observation

Election Observation in Election Law Verification of the election process for the purpose of collecting all information concerning the conditions in which it took place. This is done by impartial organisations that must not intervene or interfere in the operations they are called upon to […]

Constitutional Court

Spanish Translation of Constitutional Court This is the legal translation of English to Spanish in relation to Constitutional Court and / or a definition of this topic: Tribunal Constitucional (in Spanish, without translation of the dictionary entry). Constitutional Court in Constitutional Law […]

Tax

Other Popular Tax Definitions in the World Legal Encyclopedia Adjusted Gross Income (sometimes, including Tax) Ad Valorem Tax (sometimes, including Tax) Alternative Minimum Tax (sometimes, including Tax) Big Four (audit firms) (sometimes, including Tax) Black Market (sometimes, including Tax) […]

Frontier

A Shot across the Frontier: International Incident In the book "International Incidents for Discussion in Conversation Classes", in relation to this subject, L. Oppenheim wrote in 1909: On Sept. 26th, 1887, a German soldier, on sentry duty at the frontier near Vexaincourt, fired a […]

Outsourcing

Outsourcing in the International Trade Union Rights Area Definition of Outsourcing provided by ITUC-CSI-IGB: See contracting-out Outsourcing in International Trade Meaning of Outsourcing, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): Outsourcing, is the process of […]

Legitimacy

A Question of Legitimacy: International Incident In the book "International Incidents for Discussion in Conversation Classes", in relation to this subject, L. Oppenheim wrote in 1909: Edward Wolff, a German subject, domiciled in England since 1860, goes to Germany in 1870 for the […]

Import

Import in International Trade Meaning of Import, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): 1. To receive goods and services from abroad. 2. An imported item. Cultural Property: Import Restrictions In relation to the international law practice and cultural […]

Press Release

Press Release in Election Law Official statement, announcement or notice published in the media by the government, election authority, candidate(s) or national/international observers on a specific subject. Resources See Also Media Propaganda Media Law Entertainment Law Resources See Also […]

Extradition

Introduction to Extradition Extradition, in law, surrender by one sovereign power to another of a fugitive from justice. Between nations, the right of one power to demand of another the extradition of a fugitive accused of crime, and the duty of the country in which the fugitive has found […]

Gender Equality

Gender Equality and the United Nations The United Nations has the responsibility to ensure that all its actions promote and protect gender equality and women’s empowerment. UN efforts to help establish the rule of law for all on the basis of equality are essential to this end. Advancing […]

Observer

Observer and the GATT Policy Negotiations In relation to the GATT Policy Negotiations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following explanation and/or definition of Observer: An observer to the GATT is a country or international organization that has been authorized by the GATT Council (Sec. […]

Common Market

Summary of Common Market

A supranational organization of trading nations, created to promote economic collaboration and minimize constraints on the free movement of goods among the member states. Features of a common market include elimination of tariffs on goods moving between member […]

Turkey

The Legal History of Ottoman Empire: Islamic Law in Asia Minor (Turkey) and the Ottoman Empire This section provides an overview of Ottoman Empire: Islamic Law in Asia Minor (Turkey) and the Ottoman Empire The Fall of Abdul Hamid: International Incident In the book "International […]

Computer

The Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act and the Electronic Commerce The Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act in the Online Business Law Concept of Netwar An introductory definition of Netwar is provided here: the primary objective of "netwar" is to use computer […]

Marriage

Disasters and the law Marriage, Sexual Behaviour and the Law Further Reading Marriage in the Encyclopedia of Sexual Behavior and the Law The Legal History of Marriage This section provides an overview of Marriage Marriage and Family Life in the CEDAW Article 16: of the Convention on the […]

Offshoring

Offshoring in International Trade Meaning of Offshoring, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): Offshoring occurs, when a company moves all or some of its activities to another country. When the costs of running a company are cheaper in another country, the […]

Freedom of Movement

Freedom of Movement in Election Law All citizens, except those who are minors and other specific categories of people, have the liberty to travel alone, reside in any part of the state where they please, within the limits of respect for the liberty and rights of others, and to leave that state […]

Holding Company

Holding Company in International Trade Meaning of Holding Company, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): Holding companies are corporations that are created for the sole purpose of obtaining and managing a controlling interest in other companies. There are […]

Non-governmental Organisation

Non-governmental Organisation (ngo) in Election Law Entities that are neither a part of a government or are conventional for-profit businesses. Usually set up by ordinary citizens, NGOs are highly diverse and can be engaged in a wide range of activities, generally for the public good. In the […]

Partnership

Introduction to PartnershipPartnership, in law, term applied to an association of two or more persons who have agreed to combine their labor, property, and skill, or some or all of them, for the purpose of engaging in lawful business and sharing profits and losses between them; in this defi…

Developing Countries

Developing Countries in International Trade Meaning of Developing Countries, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): The developing countries generally lack a high degree of industrialization, infrastructure and other capital investment, sophisticated […]

Nationality

Introduction to Nationality Nationality, in law, condition or status of belonging to, or having legal identity with, a nation or state. In various political systems a distinction is made between nationality and citizenship; the latter represents a higher political status, usually involving […]

Referendum

Introduction to Referendum Referendum, practice of submitting an issue to the popular vote. The proposal or issue can itself be called a referendum. In government, the "petition referendum" originates with the voters and provides that a proposed law be put to a popular vote before it […]

Exchange Rate

Exchange Rate in International Trade Meaning of Exchange Rate, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): The price of one currency expressed in terms of another, i.e., the number of units of one currency that may be exchanged for one unit of another currency. […]

Balance of Payments

Balance Of Payments Summary of Balance Of Payments

The sum owed to or by a nation as the result of its international transactions during a given time period, usually one year. The balance of payments is calculated by subtracting the nation's total payments to foreigners from total […]

Terms of Trade

Summary of Terms of Trade An export-import price ratio derived by dividing indices of export prices by indices of import prices. For example, when export indices are 105 percent of a base period, and import indices are 98 percent of the same base period, then the terms of trade […]

Trademark

A device, symbol, or word used by a firm to distinguish its products from those of other manufacturers. The object of trademarks is to permit brand identification of products, which may permit a more ready market acceptance of current and new products. Trademarks are protected in the United […]