International Monetary Fund

International Monetary Fund Outline The UN Monetary and Financial Conference met in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, from 1 to 20 July 1944. The Bretton Woods Agreement announced the establishment of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for […]


Dumping in International Trade Meaning of Dumping, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): The practice of selling a product in a foreign market at an unfairly low price (a price that is lower than the cost in the home market, or which is lower than the cost of […]

Administrative Court

Administrative Court in Election Law Type of court specialised in ruling on disputes between the public authorities and individuals. It can be mandated by electoral law to rule on election-related disputes. Resources See Also Election Law Electoral Laws Electoral Legislation


Summary of Cartel

An alliance among firms in the same line of business aimed at controlling or dominating their field on an international basis.

(Main Author: William J. Miller)

Definition of Cartel In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Cartel : […]

Foreign Currency

Foreign Currency in International Trade Meaning of Foreign Currency, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): The currency of any foreign country which is authorized medium of circulation and the basis for record keeping in that country. Foreign currency is […]

International Agreement

International Agreement in International Trade Meaning of International Agreement, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): A broad term for legally binding arrangements covered by international law between or among countries. Such arrangements are variously […]

Parliamentary Session

Parliamentary Session in Election Law Period during which parliament operates. During a parliamentary recess, a permanent committee is usually in place to respond to pressing issues. A parliamentary session differs from a legislative session, which is the duration for which representatives […]

Civil Law

Introduction to Civil Law "Civil Law, term applied to a legal tradition originating in ancient Rome and to the contemporary legal systems based on this tradition. Modern civil law systems, which were originally developed in Western European countries, have spread throughout the world. […]

Customs Union

Summary of Customs Union

An arrangement among participating countries whereby tariffs are eliminated or virtually eliminated on products moving between members, and a common external tariff (read this and related legal terms for further details) is adopted to provide uniform treatment to […]


Introduction to Election Election, procedure that allows members of an organization or community to choose representatives who will hold positions of authority within it. The most important elections select the leaders of local, state, and national governments. The chance to decide who will […]

Reserve Currency

Summary of Reserve Currency

The currency of a major trading national, widely accepted in international transactions and regarded as stable, that is held by the central banks or monetary authorities of other nations as a form of collateral for their own currency. The use of reserve […]

International Affairs

International Affairs in the CEDAW Article 8 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) stipulates, in relation to International Affairs, that all countries are required to ensure women the equal opportunity to represent their governments at the […]


The Mercosur treaty creates something of a free trade zone among countries in the southern part of South America. The related Mercosur organization posts materials in Spanish. For information about Mercosur materials, see A Guide to MERCOSUR Legal Research: Sources and Documents. […]

Import Substitution

Summary of Import Substitution

The act of eliminating imports of a given product by commencing production locally, often accompanied by controls such as increased duties, quotas, or outright bans to discourage or prevent continued foreign imports. This approach is fairly common on the part […]


A New-born Island: International Incident In the book "International Incidents for Discussion in Conversation Classes", in relation to this subject, L. Oppenheim wrote in 1909: An island rises in the sea on the boundary line of the territorial maritime belt of another island in the […]


Criminal Procedure: Jurisdiction Introduction to Jurisdiction For a criminal conviction to be valid, both the sovereign power (the state or federal government) and the specific court that tries the accused must have jurisdiction (authority) over the crime charged. Jurisdiction refers to a […]

Electoral Fraud

Ballot Tampering in Election Law A method of electoral fraud which consists of manipulating the ballot in any manner which would invalidate the vote or alter the counting results. It may happen at different stages of the polling and counting operations. Resources See Also Election Law […]

International Arbitration

International arbitration is the settlement by a mutually acceptable third party of disputes between sovereign states. Modern international arbitration began with the conclusion of Jay's Treaty (1794) by Great Britain and the United States. Numerous disputes were arbitrated during the 19th […]


Summary of Devaluation

The official reduction of the value of a nation's money in relation to a standard (usually gold), special drawing rights, or the U.S. dollar. Inasmuch as all currencies are ultimately valued in terms of some standard, devaluation results in the conscious increase […]


ISO in International Trade Meaning of ISO, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): The International Standards Organization was established in 1947 as a worldwide federation of national bodies representing approximately 90 members. The scope of ISO covers […]

Transfer Pricing

The pricing level at which goods are sold between related entities, subsidiary to parent. Transfer pricing has been an area of considerable interest to customs authorities, inasmuch as such sales are often suspected of being manipulated by the parties deliberately to undervalue the goods for […]

Electoral Reform

Introduction Electoral Reform, elimination of undemocratic, dishonest, and corrupt practices in the conduct of public elections. Reform is usually effected by statutory enactments that contain provisions for accomplishing one or more of the following ends: a change in the qualification […]


Violence Definition Violence may be defined as a physical attack of another person. Activities that may legally involve violence include hunting, law enforcement, sports, and war. Crime includes many illegal forms of violence. The first point that has to be clarified is the meaning of the […]


The Mail or Telephone Order Merchandise Rule and the Electronic Commerce The Mail or Telephone Order Merchandise Rule in the Online Business Law Cellular Subscribers (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Cellular Subscribers means: Subscribers to an automatic public mobile telephone […]


In the United States For information about Trade in the context of international trade, click here Trade and the Laws of International Trade Prohibited actions Export Administration System Trade and the Laws of International Trade Intent Export Administration System American Coasting Trade: […]

Customs Valuation

For importers, the process of estimating the value of a product at customs presents problems that can be just as serious as the actual duty rate charged. The WTO agreement on customs valuation aims for a fair, uniform and neutral system for the valuation of goods for customs purposes — a system that conforms to commercial realities, and which outlaws the use of arbitrary or fictitious customs values. The Committee on Customs Valuation of the Council for Trade in Goods (CGT) carries out work in the WTO on customs valuation.


Nafta Nafta in International Trade Meaning of Nafta, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): A free trade agreement comprising Canada, Mexico and the United States. The objectives of the agreement are to eliminate barriers to trade, promote conditions of fair […]


Vat Vat in International Trade Meaning of Vat, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): The Value Added Tax is a tax assessed on the increased value of goods as they pass from raw material stage through the production and distribution processes to final […]


A Murder in Monaco: International Incident In the book "International Incidents for Discussion in Conversation Classes", in relation to this subject, L. Oppenheim wrote in 1909: In August, 1907, Mr. and Mrs. Goold, the Monte Carlo murderers, were arrested in Marseilles, to which town […]


In the United States For information about Export in the context of international trade, click here Export in International Trade Meaning of Export, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): To ship an item away from a country for sale to another country. […]


Protectionism Definition Protectionism may be defined as government policies that favor domestic products over imported goods. The debate between protectionism and free trade has been a continuing issue in United States politics. Meanings For information on: * systematic protectionism […]


Introduction to Crime Crime, commission of an act or act of omission that violates the law and is punishable by the state. Crimes are considered injurious to society or the community, as distinguished from torts (see Tort) and breach of contract. As defined by law, a crime includes both the […]

Choice of Law

Europe Financial Law: Choice of Law Regulation on the on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations (2006) The proposed Regulation text (article 8.3) would override the United Kingdom's derogation from article 7.1 of the Rome Convention and would create significant uncertainty and […]

1958 Convention: Interpretation

1958 Convention: Interpretation

    The New York Convention is an international treaty. As such, it is part of public international law. Consequently, the courts called upon to apply the Convention must interpret it in accordance with the […]

Level Playing Field

Level Playing Field and International Trade Economy In relation to international trade economy, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following definition of Level Playing Field: A concept or slogan employed by those calling for efforts to secure both free trade and fair trade. The term alludes […]


Surveyor in International Trade Meaning of Surveyor, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): An individual or company that acting as an independent third-party expert examines and ascertains the condition of goods or transport equipment (specially ships). […]

Countervailing Duties

Summary of Countervailing Duties

Special duties, over and above ordinary duties, imposed upon imported merchandise to counteract the economic advantage provided to the foreign supplier by his government in the form of export subsidies. The object of countervailing duties is to protect […]

Border Tax Adjustment

Border Tax Adjustment (BTA) in International Trade Meaning of Border Tax Adjustment (BTA), according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): A tax to which domestically produced goods and imports are subject but from which exports are exempt. Border tax adjustments are […]