Labour law (prueba)

Hierarchical Display of Labour law Employment And Working Conditions > Labour law and labour relationsSocial Questions > Social affairs > Social policy > European social policy > Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of WorkersTrade > International trade > International trade > Social clausePolitics > Executive power and public service > Administrative structures > … Read more

DENOMINATIONALISM

DENOMINATIONALISMThe term denomination was innovated in the late seventeenth century by those groups of Christians in England who dissented from the established Church of England but considered themselves to be entirely loyal to the British state and recognized the monarch as having rights with respect to the Church of England. In 1702, specifically, the Presbyterians, … Read more

Court ADR

Court ADR The Roots of Court ADR The dispute resolution field has deep roots in the courts dating back to Professor Frank Sander’s proposal for a multi-door courthouse at the Pound Conference in 1976. The widespread popularity and growth of mediation and dissatisfaction in many quarters with the traditional legal process resulted in the proliferation … Read more

Sales Law

Sales Law Comparative Sales Law Comparative Law and the Development of Uniform Sales Law The story of the international unification of the law of sales contracts is inextricably linked to the Austrian scholar and academic Ernst Rabel (1874- 1955). Rabel prepared the basis for any comparative study of the modern law of sales. The founding … Read more

Intellectual Property Regulation

Intellectual Property Regulation Pre-TRIPs Prior to the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement, intellectual property was not truly regulated under international law. It was domestically regulated. Internationally, intellectual property protection was loosely coordinated within a patchwork of international treaties and conventions. Post-TRIPs The Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement, effectively, subsumed all international … Read more

Evolution of International Organizations

Evolution of International Organizations Evolution of International Organizations Resources See Also Foregin Policy Foreign Affairs International Relations Further Reading Abbott, K. W., Genschel, P., Snidal, D., & Zangl, B. (Eds.). (2015). International organizations as orchestrators. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. Adams, M., de Waele, H., Meeusen, J., & Straetmans, G. (2013). Judging Europe’s judges: The … Read more

Biopolitics

Biopolitics Resources See Also Foregin Policy Foreign Affairs International Relations Further Reading Adler, E., & Bernstein, S. (2005). Knowledge in power: The epistemic construction of global governance. In M. Barnett & R. Duvall (Eds.), Power in global governance (pp. 294–318). New York: Cambridge University Press. Agamben, G. (1998). Homo sacer: Sovereign power and bare life. … Read more

Activities of International Organizations

Activities of International Organizations Activities of International Organizations Activities of International Organizations include: Peace Operations This subsection covers Peace Operations in relation to international organizations activity. Counter-Terrorism This subsection covers Counter-Terrorism in relation to international organizations activity. Non-Proliferation and Disarmament This subsection covers Non-Proliferation and Disarmament in relation to international organizations activity. Human Rights This … Read more

Obligations of International Organizations

Obligations of International Organizations Case Law on the Obligations of International Organizations Main court decisions: Case 21-24/72, International Fruit Company v. Produktschap voor Siergewassen, Court of Justice of the EC, [1972] ECR 1219, 5.2. Interpretation of the Agreement of 25 March 1951 between the WHO and Egypt, advisory opinion, [1980] ICJ Reports 73, 5.3. Case … Read more

Nazi Camps

Nazi Camps INTRODUCTION Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its allies established more than 40,000 camps and other incarceration sites. The perpetrators used these sites for a range of purposes, including forced labor, detention of people thought to be enemies of the state, and mass murder. The total number of sites is based upon … Read more

German Concentration Camp System

German Concentration Camp System German authorities under National Socialism established a variety of detention facilities to confine those whom they defined as political, ideological, or racial opponents of the regime. In time their extensive camp system came to include concentration camps, where persons were incarcerated without observation of the standard norms applying to arrest and … Read more

German Concentration Camps

German Concentration Camps Concentration Camps, 1933–1939 Concentration camps (Konzentrationslager; abbreviated as KL or KZ) were an integral feature of the regime in Nazi Germany between 1933 and 1945. The term concentration camp refers to a camp in which people are detained or confined, usually under harsh conditions and without regard to legal norms of arrest … Read more

Internalization of International Law

Internalization of International Law Resources See Also Further Reading Abbott, K.W., and Snidal, D. (2001) Hard Law and Soft Law in International Governance. In J. Goldstein, M. Kahler, R.O. Keohane, and A.-M. Slaughter (eds.) Legalization and World Politics. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 37–73. Barnett, M.N. (1995) The United Nations and Global Security: The Norm Is … Read more

International Data Collection

International Data Collection Data Collection: International Conflict Data Collection Procedures in International Conflict Datasets Differences in definitions of conflicts used in various conflict data collection efforts will influence inferences on trends in conflict and peace. For example, decisions about what to consider a state will have obvious implications for conclusions about conflicts between them. Resources … Read more

Compliance with International Law

Compliance With International Law Resources See Also Foregin Policy Foreign Affairs International Relations Further Reading Abbott, K., & Snidal, D. (2000). Hard and soft law in international governance. International Organization, 54(3), 421–456. Agon, S. (2016). Is compliance the name of the effectiveness game? Goal-shifting and the dynamics of judicial effectiveness at the WTO. World Trade … Read more

Mesopotamian Law

Mesopotamian Law Mesopotamian Law and Homosexuality Neither the “Code” of Hammurabi for the Laws of Eshnunna seem to any mention of homosexual activity. The Assyrian Laws of c. 1450-1250 BCE does seem to have a relevant provision. The usual view is that these laws represent some kind of addition to the older law codes. The … Read more

Inter-Organizational Relations

Inter-Organizational Relations Researchers began to engage in the study of inter-organizational relations later than their colleagues in neighboring disciplines such as sociology and economics. A further consolidation of the study of inter-organizational relations is expected to be achieved, including for the broader philosophical or socio-theoretical assumptions and for the political and societal implications of these … Read more

Distributive Justice

Distributive Justice International or Global Distributive Justice Resources See Also Foreign Policy Foreign Affairs International Relations Further Reading Abizadeh, A. (2007). Cooperation, pervasive impact, and coercion: On the scope (not site) of distributive justice. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 35(4), 318–358. Abizadeh, A., & Gilabert, P. (2008). Is there a genuine tension between cosmopolitan egalitarianism and … Read more

Legal Status of International Organizations

Legal Status (Personality) of International Organizations Case Law on the Legal Status (Personality) of International Organizations Main court decisions: Reparation for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations, advisory opinion, [1949] ICJ Reports 174, Case 22/70, Commission v. Council (European Road Transport Agreement), Court of Justice of the EC, [1971] ECR 263, Maclaine … Read more

Encyclopaedia Britannica Index

Encyclopaedia Britannica Index 1959 Encyclopaedia Britannica Index in Law and Politics Law Banking law Bologna Casuality Crete Criminal law Education of women Federal courts Legal articles Legislation Ordeal Source Stoics Primitive law Law agent Law agents Law and opinion in the 19th century [Dicey] Law courts Law determiner [General law] Lawyers, Scot Law mechant [lex … Read more

International Monetary Regulation

International Monetary Regulation Resources See Also Foreign Policy Foreign Affairs International Relations Further Reading Adler, E., & Haas, P. (1992). Conclusion: Epistemic communities, world order, and the creation of a reflexive research program. International Organization, 46(1), 367–390. Andrews, D. (1994). Capital mobility and state autonomy. International Studies Quarterly, 38(2), 193–218. Axelrod, R. (1984). The evolution … Read more

Structures of International Organizations

Structures of International Organizations Case Law on the Institutional Structures and position of members of International Organizations Main court decisions: Case concerning Questions of Interpretation and Application of the 1971 Montreal Convention arising from the Aerial Incident at Lockerbie (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya v. United Kingdom), order, [1992] ICJ Reports 3, Prosecutor v. Dusko Tadi?, IT-94-1-AR72, … Read more

United Nations Resolutions

United Nations Resolutions United Nations Security Council Resolutions Some of the United Nations Security Council resolutions covered in this encyclopedia cover the following: United Nations Security Council Resolution 827 United Nations Security Council Resolution 955 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1272 United Nations Security Council Resolution 2177 United Nations Security Council Resolution 940 United Nations … Read more

United Nations Security Council Resolutions

United Nations Security Council Resolutions United Nations Security Council Resolutions Some of the United Nations Security Council resolutions covered in this encyclopedia cover the following: United Nations Security Council Resolution 827 United Nations Security Council Resolution 955 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1272 United Nations Security Council Resolution 2177 United Nations Security Council Resolution 940 … Read more

United Nations General Assembly Resolutions

United Nations General Assembly Resolutions Note: for information on United Nations activities in general, see here. United Nations General Assembly Resolutions Some of the United Nations General Assembly Resolutions covered in the Encyclopedia are the following: United Nations General Assembly Resolution 64/298 United Nations General Assembly Resolution 174 United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1514 United … Read more

Popular on the Encyclopedia of Law

Popular on the Encyclopedia of Law International Law What’s trending on the Encyclopedia of Law right now about international law issues: For you: Top 10 International Law Entries Inquisitorial Legal System Legal Pluralism Blockade Legal Translation Code of Canon Law Adversarial System International Commercial Arbitration Socialist Legal Systems Raw Material Supply Agreement Ratione Materiae In … Read more

Cultural Political Economy

Cultural Political Economy W.H. Sewell argued, in “The Concept(s) of Culture” (in V. Bonnell, and L. Hunt (eds.) Beyond the Cultural Turn: New Directions in the Study of Society and Culture), “the system has no existence apart from the succession of practices that instantiate, reproduce, or – most interestingly – transform it. Hence system implies … Read more

Dictionary of Essential Legal Terms

The Dictionary of Essential Legal Terms Details of The Dictionary of Essential Legal Terms Author: Amy Hackney Blackwell Date of publishing: 2008 Publisher: Sphinx Publishing, An imprint of Sourcebooks, Inc, Naperville, Illinois 60567-4410, United States Contents of The Dictionary of Essential Legal Terms Abandon Abatable Nuisance Abate Abatement of a Legacy Abatement of Taxes Abdicate … Read more

Corredores de Bow Street

Corredores de Bow Street En el Londres del siglo XVIII, “la policía” eran pocos, distantes entre ellos, ineficientes y corruptos. El concepto de las tareas policiales fue indiscutiblemente confundido en las grandes ciudades como Londres. El período del 1674 al 1913 presenció la transformación de la policía en Londres de un sistema que se basó … Read more

Encyclopedia of European Social History from 1350 to 2000

Encyclopedia of European Social History from 1350 to 2000 Details of the Encyclopedia Editor-in-chief: Peter N. Stearns. Features: Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBNs: ISBN 0-684-80582-0 (set : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-684-80577-4 (vol. 1)—ISBN 0-684-80578-2 (vol. 2) — ISBN 0-684-80579-0 (vol. 3) — ISBN 0-684-80580-4 (vol. 4) — ISBN 0-684-80581-2 (vol. 5) — ISBN … Read more

Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage

A Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage Note: Also called the Garner’s Dictionary of Legal Usage and the Garner’s Modern English Usage, depending on the editions. Seeral editions. New York: Oxford University Press. Author: Bryan A. Garner. The third edition: 2011. Pp. xxx + 991. $65.00. ISBN 978-0-19-538420-8. For the 4th edition: Garner’s Modern English Usage, … Read more

List of people who disappeared mysteriously

List of people who disappeared mysteriously This is a list of people who have mysteriously disappeared, relating chronologically cases of disappearance recorded in the course of history that have occurred to notorious people and in unenlightened circumstances. Before 1800 71 BC – although supposedly died in battle, the body of the rebel slave Spartacus was … Read more

Hashish

Hashish or Indian hemp Note: see the entry on Legality of cannabis Hashish: THE GENEVA CONFERENCES In 1923 the South African Government sent to the League of Nations the suggestion that hashish should be treated as a habit-forming narcotic drug and brought within the scope of The Hague Convention. The Advisory Committee considered the matter … Read more

Accommodationism

Accommodationism Mark Noll and Luke E. Harlow noted (13 September 2007, “Religion and American Politics: From the Colonial Period to the Present”,. Oxford University Press. p. 82): “The accommodationist perspective emphasizes rather that the First Amendment was clearly not intended to be antireligious–indeed, as already suggested, it was drafted precisely to protect the various religious … Read more

Readability of Encyclopedias

Readability of Encyclopedias Much research has already been carried out on the quality of information in Wikipedia as well as the perception of quality or credibility by its users. However, a different concern has recently been raised, namely about its readability. In a study on the accuracy of cancer information (Rajagopalan, et al., 2010) on … Read more

Online Sales Tax

Online Sales Tax Online Sales Tax in the United States In the case “South Dakota v. Wayfair,” No. 17-494, Justice Kennedy’s opinion states: “That said, South Dakota’s tax system includes several features that appear designed to prevent discrimination against or undue burdens upon interstate commerce. First, the Act applies a safe harbor to those who … Read more

Zakat

Obligatory Charity Tax (Zakat) Zakat Al-Maal (Tithing) Zakat Al-Maal is the third pillar of Islam. Any man or woman who meets the minimum requirements of wealth must pay their share of Zakat. However, paying Zakat is not a burden—it is a blessing and a testimony to one’s sincere faith and devotion to Allah. In addition … Read more

PwC

PwC or PricewaterhouseCoopers Official History PricewaterhouseCoopers was created on 1 July 1998 by the merger of two firms – Price Waterhouse and Coopers & Lybrand – each with historical roots going back some 150 years. Set out below are some key milestones in the history of both firms. 1849 Samuel Lowell Price sets up in … Read more

Anglo-Muhammadan Law

Anglo-Muhammadan Law Definition of Anglo-Muhammadan Law Anglo-Muhammadan Law, applied in British colonial courts in India, it included criminal and civil law and was based on an interpretation of Islamic texts and practices. A comprehensive penal code ( 1860 ) ended its criminal application, but it continued to be applied in personal status law until the … Read more

Stock in Trade

Stock In Trade What is “stock-in-trade”? Stock in trade is the inventory of goods, and merchandise, held by a business entity for the purpose of using them for sales and other processing, making salable goods or for selling to the customers with an intention [in the case of a for profit business] to make profit … Read more

Encyclopedia of the US Congress

Encyclopedia of the United States Congress Details Robert E. Dewhirst, Facts On File, Inc., New York, 2007 Content of the Encyclopedia of the United States Congress Army-mccarthy Hearings Congressional Elections: Financing Direct Election of Senators Enacting Clause Equal Rights Amendment Extension of Remarks House Un-american Activities Committee Intelligence Oversight “Lame Duck” Amendment Pay and Perquisites … Read more

Encyclopedia of US Intelligence

Encyclopedia of U.S. Intelligence Details Greg Moore, Auerbach Publications, 2014 Content of the Encyclopedia of U.S. Intelligence Actionable Intelligence in the Encyclopedia Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya in the Encyclopedia Al-Qaeda in the Encyclopedia Aldrich Hazen Ames in the Encyclopedia James Jesus Angleton in the Encyclopedia Benedict Arnold in the Encyclopedia Association of Former Intelligence Officers in the … Read more

American Capitals

American Capitals A national capital or, in general, a capital (of Latin “caput,” “capitis,” which means “head”) is the city or locality where the central government, and all the main supreme organs of the State, reside. Capitals in America are generally recognized as a city which physically encompasses the offices and meeting places of the … Read more

Historical Capitals of the World

Historical Capitals of the World List of Historical World Capitals by Continents since 1800 List of Historical World Capitals by Countries in America since 1800 United States of America COW Number: 2 (see the “Correlates of War” Project) Historical Country Alternative Spellings / Names / Related Entities: US/U.S./United States; USA/U.S.A. Capital(s) since 1800: Washington D.C. … Read more

Structural Bias

Besides “partisan bias” in media reporting, a second type of media bias is known as “structural bias.” This type of bias stems from certain “structures” (customs, reporting routines, commercial pressures, etc.) that operate within the news industry. As a result of the highly commercial and purportedly nonpartisan nature of the mainstream media, the issue of media bias surfaces in a unique way in some western democracies.

World Countries Vocabulary

World Countries Vocabulary World Countries and Nationality Vocabulary Afghanistan . Adjective used for Afghanistan (also describes nationality): Afghan . Noun used for a person from Afghanistan : an Afghan . Albania . Adjective used for Albania (also describes nationality): Albanian . Noun used for a person from Albania : an Albanian . Algeria . Adjective … Read more

Speciesism

Historically there have been two major routes for defending animal experimentation: deontological and utilitarian. Deontological arguments attempt to identify a fundamental difference between humans and non-human animals which morally justifies a difference in treatment. The previous argument does not directly challenge the claim that humans and non-human animals are relevantly different. However, the dilemma does indicate that animal experimentation is unjustifiable even if they are relevantly different. If humans and non-human animals are relevantly different, then animal experiments are scientifically questionable. And if the experiments are scientifically questionable, then experimentation will be morally objectionable since it wastes scarce public resources. On the other hand, if humans and non-human animals are relevantly similar, then experiments will be scientifically respectable, but morally objectionable.

It appears the straightforward deontological defense of experimentation is implausible. Some deontologists might acknowledge that non-human animals are sufficiently similar to humans to make experimentation both scientifically reputable and morally problematic. However, they might then argue that even as deontologists they recognize the (limited) relevance of consequentialist considerations. On this view, the benefits of experimentation are so overwhelming that they outweigh the cost of experimenting on animals creatures of some moral worth. For those who wish to take such a tack, their fate will lie with consequentialist defenses of experimentation. But we have argued in a previous paper that a utilitarian defense of research is flawed.35 It is no longer certain how the researchers can morally justify their practice.

Illegal Arms Transfers

Illegal Arms Transfers Programme of Action on small arms and its International Tracing Instrument Under the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (PoA), governments agreed to improve national small arms laws, import/export controls, and stockpile management – and to engage … Read more