Certificate of Origin

A document presented to customs authorities at the time of importation to authenticate the national origin of merchandise. The certificate is customarily issued by a recognized chamber of commerce or governmental authority in the country of origin….


Database in Legal Information RetrievalThe following is a basic concept of Database in relation to information retrieval. In addition to this, Database may be applied to legal texts, including case law, legislation and scholarly works. Database is a relatively new word for a collection of data […]


Direct Recording Electronic (dre) Equipment in Election Law Machines or computers normally installed at a polling station, which record and simultaneously store votes. This can be done using a touch screen (with or without a special pen), or by using devices that involve pressing one or more […]


Summary of Monopoly The condition in which a given product or service can be obtained only from a single supplier that is free to use its market position to exact excessive prices for the product or service it controls. The Sherman Act of 1890 makes monopolies and attempts to monopolize […]


Census, term usually referring to an official count by a national government of its country's population. A population census determines the size of a country's population and the characteristics of its people, such as their age, sex, ethnic background, marital status, and income. […]


Government Definition Government may be defined as a political organization comprising the individuals and institutions authorized to formulate public policies and conduct affairs of state. Governments are empowered to establish and regulate the interrelationships of the people within their […]

Technology Transfer

Technology Transfer and International Trade Economy In relation to international trade economy, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following definition of Technology Transfer: The diffusion of practical knowledge from one enterprise, institution or country to another. Technology may be […]

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

International Bank For Reconstruction And Development International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Outline The IBRD was established pursuant to the Bretton Woods Agreement of 1944. Its headquarters are in Washington, DC. As its name suggests, it is an intergovernmental (as opposed to […]


The Legal History of Parliament This section provides an overview of Parliament Parliament in Election Law National body of representatives having legislative power within the state. House of Representatives in U.S. Constitutional Law A list of entries related to House of Representatives may […]


Summary of Oligopoly

Literally, a market in which there are only a few sellers of a given product or service. Under oligopolistic conditions, no one seller can establish market prices, except in concert with the other suppliers; if such concerted action develops, the suppliers are operating […]

Civil Society

Civil Society in Election Law Associations, organisations and unions that are active in public affairs and constitute an independent counterforce to the powers that be. In democracies, all persons have a right to participate in public affairs, including in civil society activities and, through […]


Efta Efta in International Trade Meaning of Efta, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): The European Free Trade Association is an intergovernmental organization set up for the promotion of free trade and economic integration to the benefit of its four Member […]


An arrangement in which an insurance underwriter contractually spreads its policy risks with other underwriters, sharing the premium with them. For example, an underwriter may issue a policy for fifty million dollars to cover the loss of a ship; being unwilling to assume the full risk of loss, […]

Health Insurance

Health Insurance in Aging Law Concept of Health Insurance in the context of Community Health Care and Services for Older Persons, published by the World Health Organization (WHO):Financial protection against the health care costs arising from disease or accidental bodily injury. Such insurance […]


Caricom Caricom in International Trade Meaning of Caricom, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): The Caribbean Community Market (CARICOM) is an organization of 15 Caribbean nations established in 1973 whose main purposes are to promote economic integration and […]


Legal Materials For information, call the National Committee on United States-China Relations(NCUSCR) at 212-645-9677. Other possibilities: the Chinese embassy (202-495-2266) or the U.S. State Department. Legal: The National People's Congress posts a free Database of Laws and […]


Employment Law The Legal History of Employment and Labor Law This section provides an overview of Employment and Labor Law Employment in the CEDAW Article 11 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) stipulates, in relation to Employment, that […]


Subsidiary or Subordinate Election Management Body in Election Law An Election Management Body (EMB) that is not the primary or principal entity responsible for the organisation of elections within a given state. It may be regional or local. Subsidiary in International Trade Meaning of […]


Introduction to Democracy Democracy (Greek demos,"the people"; kratein, "to rule"), political system in which the people of a country rule through any form of government they choose to establish. In modern democracies, supreme authority is exercised for the most part by […]


Summary of Barter

A direct exchange of products without cash. In some cases, a third party is brought into the transaction to dispose of some or all of the goods in a third country; this practice is known as switch trading. See Countertrade.

(Main Author: William J. Miller)

Barter […]


A commercial arrangement in which the buyer pays for his purchases, wholly or partly, with something other than money. Very often countertrade deals include some cash, but a significant portion of the transaction is settled with commodities or services. Countertrade has been employed heavily […]


Eurostat in International Trade Note: there is more information about this term in the European legal Encyclopedia. Meaning of Eurostat, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): Eurostat is the Statistical Office of the European Union. Its task is to provide the […]


Association in Election Law Group of people working together to achieve common goals on a nonprofit basis. Associations are the most important component of civil society. Description of Association Resources See Also International Organization Foreign Relations Intergovernmental […]

GATT Accession

GATT Accession Summary of GATT Detais can be found in General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade). Accession Process The process was described by Christopher Mark in 1993: "Joining the GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE is rarely a simple or straightforward matter –especially if the […]

Multilateral Agreement

Multilateral Agreement in International Trade Meaning of Multilateral Agreement, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): A international agreement involving three or more parties. For example, the GATT (General Agreement o Tariffs and Trade) has been, since its […]

Free Trade Agreement

Free Trade Agreement and the GATT Policy Negotiations In relation to the GATT Policy Negotiations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following explanation and/or definition of Free Trade Agreement: An agreement between two or more countries establishing a free trade area (FTA).

Money Laundering

Money Laundering in International Trade Meaning of Money Laundering, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): The process whereby criminal seek to "wash" illicit funds (generally garnered from international terrorism or drug dealing). By moving funds […]

Civil War

The Case of the Trent: International Incident In the book "International Incidents for Discussion in Conversation Classes", in relation to this subject, L. Oppenheim wrote in 1909: On Nov. 8th, 1861, during the American Civil War, the Federal cruiser San Jacinto stopped the British […]


Core Cost (elections) in Election Law Direct expenses incurred by a country for the preparation and conduct of an election, largely for the compilation of voter registers, candidate registration, voting and counting of election results. This does not include other costs covered by the […]


A quorum is the minimum number of people o members of a committee, board of directors, society, meeting of shareholders, legislative assembly or other body required to be in attendance in order a vote can be taken or the body to act. Legislative Quorum in Canada As stated by the […]

Freedom of Expression

Freedom of Expression in Election Law A universal right that includes freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art or through any other media of a person's choice. This freedom […]

Political Rights

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (iccpr) in Election Law The ICCPR builds on the right to political participation by further detailing the requirements associated with elections that are a key part of this right. Article 25 of the ICCPR has been referred to as 'the […]

Electronic Signature

Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act and the Electronic Commerce Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act in the Online Business Law Resources See Also Online Tax Internet Law Internet Marketing Internet Privacy Internet Sales Internet Tax […]

Call Option

Spanish Translation of call option This is the legal translation of English to Spanish in relation to call option and / or a definition of this topic: Opción de Compra (in Spanish, without translation of the dictionary entry). Call Option in International Trade Meaning of Call Option, […]

Rules of Origin

Rules of Origin and the GATT Policy Negotiations In relation to the GATT Policy Negotiations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following explanation and/or definition of Rules of Origin: The laws, regulations, and administrative practices that are applied to ascribe acountry of origin to […]


Summary of Discrimination Unequal treatment in the duties, quotas, or administrative controls accorded to the products of one or more nations. Generally speaking, any nation which does not enjoy most FAVORED NATION (read this and related legal terms for further details) status is the subject […]