See Transnational crime .

The first precise attempt to codify piracy was in 1958 when the Convention on the High Seas was adopted in order to clarify the legal status of pirates and the competence to arrest pirates. These articles in the Convention on the High Seas have been incorporated into the UN Convention on the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS) and have today become the definition of piracy under international law. That is, piracy according to the UNCLOS consists of all illegal acts of violence, detention, or any acts of plundering, committed for private ends on the High Seas or areas not under national jurisdiction.

Reference works

Haywood, R. and Spivak, R. , Maritime Piracy, 2012


Romi-Levin, R., Piracy at Sea : Bibliography, 2003

Periodicals and Serial Publications

Books and Articles

Alexander, Y. (ed.), Terror on the High Seas : From Piracy to Strategic Challenge, Santa Barbara, CA, etc. : Praeger Security International, 2009
Boon, K.E. (ed.), Terrorism : Documents of International and Local Control: Piracy and International Maritime Security, New York, NY, etc. : Oxford University Press, 2011
Guilfoyle, D., Shipping Interdiction and the Law of the Sea, Cambridge, etc. : Cambridge University Press, 2009
Heller-Roazen, D., The Enemy of All : Piracy and the Law of Nations, New York, NY : Zone Books, 2009
Kempe, M., Fluch der Weltmeere : Piraterie, Vülkerrecht und internationale Beziehungen 1500-1900, Frankfurt am Main, etc. : Campus Verlag, 2010
Lehr, P. (ed.), Violence at Sea : Piracy in the Age of Global Terrorism, New York, NY, etc. : Routledge, 2007
Marley, D., Modern Piracy : a Reference Handbook, Santa Barbara, CA, etc. : ABC-CLIO, 2011
Murphy, M.N., Small Boats, Weak States, Dirty Money : Piracy and Maritime Terrorism in the Modern World, London : Hurst, 2009
Payne, J.C., Piracy Today : Fighting Villainy on the High Seas, Dobbs Ferry, NY : Sheridan House, 2010
Petrig, A.. (ed.), Sea Piracy Law : Selected National Legal Frameworks and Regional Legislative Approaches = Droit de la piraterie maritime : cadres juridiques nationaux et approches legislatives regionales, Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2010
Young, A.J., Contemporary Maritime Piracy in Southeast Asia : History, Causes and Remedies, Singapore, etc. : Institute of Southeast Asian studies (ISEAS), etc., 2007


Arnauld, A. von, “Die moderne Piraterie und das Vülkerrecht”, in: 47 Archiv des Vülkerrechts (2009) 4, pp. 454-480
Bento, L., “Towards an International Law of Piracy Sui Generis : How the Dual Nature of Maritime Piracy Enables Piracy to Flourish”, in: 29 Berkeley Journal of International Law (2011) 2, pp. 399-455
Campbell, P., “A Modern History of the International Legal Definition of Piracy”, in: Piracy and Maritime Crime : Historical and Modern Case Studies, 2010, pp. 19-32
MacDorman, T.L., “Maritime Terrorism and the International Law of Boarding of Vessels at Sea : a Brief Assessment of the New Developments”, in: The Oceans in the Nuclear Age : Legacies and Risks, 2010, pp. 239-264
Treves, T., “Piracy, Law of the Sea, and Use of Force : Developments off the Coast of Somalia”, in: 20 European Journal of International Law (2009) 2, pp. 399-414


Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law , Piracy, by Ivan Shearer


United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) of 10 December 1982, Part VII: High Seas, Article 101


Piracy: See also

More guides on International Criminal Law

International Criminal Law
Transnational crime

More guides on Transnational Crime

Human Trafficking



See Also

References and Further Reading

About the Author/s and Reviewer/s

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