List of International Business Law Selected Cases, by Subject

List of International Business Law Selected Court Decisions, by Topic

  • Legal Status of Eastern Greenland: Treaties and Conventions (Sources of International Law)
  • The Asylum Case : Custom (Sources of International Law)

 

D.THE SCOPE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW IN ACTUAL PRACTICE

The Practice in International Tribunals

The Practice in Municipal Courts

Case 1-3. Sei Fjujii v. State

E.INTERNATIONAL PERSONS

States

Case 1-4. Matimak Trading Co. v. Khalily and D.A.Y. Kids Sportswear Inc.

Case 1-5. The Trail Smelter Arbitration

Case 1-6. Arab Republic of Syria v. Arab Republic of Egypt

International Organizations

Case 1-7. Arab Monetary Fund v. Hashim and Others (No. 3)

Case 1-8. Eunomia di Porro & Co. v. Italian Ministry of Public Education

F.THE RIGHTS OF INDIVIDUALS UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW

Case 1-9. De Sanchez v. Banco Central de Nicaragua

G.COMPARISON OF MUNICIPAL LEGAL SYSTEMS

Reading 1-1. The Clash of Civilizations

The Romano-Germanic Civil Law System

Case 1-10. Raulin v. Fischer

The Anglo-American Common law System

The Islamic Law System

Case 1-11. – Libyan American Oil Company (Liamco) v. Government of the Libyan Arab Republic

CHAPTER QUESTIONS

REVIEW PROBLEM

Chapter 2 STATE RESPONSIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION

Introduction

A.STATE RESPONSIBILITY

Doctrine of Imputability

Case 2-1. Sandline International Inc. v. Papua New Guinea

Nonimputable Acts

Case 2-2. Home Missionary Society Case

Case 2-3. Flatow v. The Islamic Republic of Iran

Fault and Causation

B.STANDARD OF CARE

The National Standard of Care

Case 2-4. Cantero Herrera v. Canevaro & Co.

The International Standard of Care

Expropriation

Case 2-5. ACSYNGO v. Compagnie de Saint-Gobain (France), SA

Case 2-6. Case Concerning Barcelona Traction, Light, and Power Company , Ltd. (Second Phase)

Denial of Justice

Case 2-7. Chattin v. United Mexican States

C.OBJECTIONS

Lack of Standing

Lack of Nationality

Lack of a Genuine Link

Failure to Exhaust Remedies

Case 2-8. The M/V “SAIGA”(No. 2) Case

Other Objections

D.RELIEF

Case 2-9. Re LETELIER and MOFFITT

E.INSURANCE

Private Insurers

National Investment Guaranty Programs

Case 2-10. In the Matter of Revere Copper and Brass, Inc. and Overseas Private Investment Corporation

Multilateral Investment Guaranty Programs

F.ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Regulation of Pollution

Case 2-11. Southern Bluefin Tuna Cases: Provisional Measures

Reading 2-1. The U.S. View: Kyoto Protocol is Fundamentally Flawed

Protection of Natural Resources

Liability for Environmental Damage

CHAPTER QUESTIONS

REVIEW PROBLEM

Chapter 3 DISPUTE SETTLEMENT

A. Settlement of Disputes THROUGH Diplomacy

Negotiation

Mediation

Inquiry

B. Settlement of Disputes IN INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNALS

International Court of Justice

Case 3-1. Case Concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Jurisdiction and Admissibility) (Dissenting Opinion)

World Trade Organization Dispute Settlement Procedures

Case 3-2. European Communities—Customs Classification of Certain Computer Equipment

Case 3-3. Japan—Taxes on Alcoholic Beverages

International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes

Case 3-4. Fedax N.V. v. The Republic of Venezuela

Other Arbitration Tribunals

C.SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES IN MUNICIPAL COURTS

Jurisdiction in Criminal Cases

Case 3-5. Attorney -General of the Government of Israel v. Eichmann

Jurisdiction in Civil Cases

Case 3-6. Bumper Development Corp., Ltd. v. Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis and Others (Union of India and Others, Claimants)

Case 3-7. Shell v. R.W. Sturge, Ltd.

D.IMMUNITIES OF STATES FROM THE JURISDICTION OF MUNICIPAL COURTS

Sovereign or State Immunity

Case 3-8. Abbott v. Republic of South Africa

Act of State Doctrine

Case 3-9. Regina v. Bartle and the Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis and Others (Ex Parte Pinochet)

E.CHOOSING THE GOVERNING LAW

Agreement of the Parties

Statutory Choice of Law Provisions

Most Significant Relationship

Case 3-10. Bank of India V. Gobindram Naraindas Sadhwani and Others

Governmental Interest

Case 3-11. REYNO v. PIPER AIRCRAFT COMPANY

F.REFUSAL TO EXERCISE JURISDICTION

G.OPPOSTION TO THE EXERCISE OF JURISDICTION

Case 3-12. Airbus Industrie G.I.E v. Patel

H.PROVING Foreign Law

I.RECOGNITION OF FOREIGN JUDGMENTS

CHAPTER QUESTIONS

REVIEW PROBLEM

Chapter 4 THE MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISE

Introduction

A.THE BUSINESS FORM

Business Forms in Civil Law States

Business Forms in Common law States

Case 4-1. Puerto Rico V. Russell & Co. et al.

The Importance of the Separate Legal Identity of Juridical Entities

Case 4-2. Case Concerning Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Co. (Second Phase)

B.THE MULTINATIONAL ORGANIZATION

The Parent Company

The Subordinate Structure

C.INTERNATIONAL REGULATION OF MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES

Reading 4-1. Proposed ISO Standard for Global Business Conduct

D.HOME STATE REGULATION OF MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES

Unfair Competition Laws

Case 4-3. Metro Industries v. Sammi Corp.

Case 4-4. Métropole Télévision (M6) v Commission of the European Communities

Products Liability Laws

Case 4-5. Asahi Metal Industry Co., Ltd. v. Superior Court of California, Solano County

Sharp Practices

Case 4-6. United States v. Blondek, Tull, Castle, and Lowry

E.HOST STATE REGULATION OF MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES

Consent to the Jurisdiction of the Host State

Common Enterprise Liability

Case 4-7. Touche Ross and Company v. Bank Intercontinental, Limited

Piercing the Company Veil

Case 4-8. Garden Contamination Case (No. 2)

CHAPTER QUESTIONS

REVIEW PROBLEM

Chapter 5 FOREIGN INVESTMENT

A.FOREIGN INVESTMENT LAWS AND CODES

National Foreign Investment Policies

Screening Foreign Investment Applications

Formal and Informal Application Process

Reading 5-1. The Informal Application Process

Approval of Foreign Investment Applications

Case 5-1. Arab Republic of Egypt v. Southern Pacific Properties, Ltd. et al

Business Forms

Limitations on Foreign Equity

Sectoral Limitations

Geographic Limitations

Case 5-2. Brady v. Brown

Free Zones

Case 5-3. Nissan Motor Mfg. Corp., U.S.A. v. United States

Foreign Investment Guarantees

B.SUPERVISION OF FOREIGN INVESTMENT

Start-Up Standards

Operational Reviews

Modification of Foreign Investment Agreements

Protection of Subsidiaries

Case 5-4. Case Concerning Elettronica Sicula, SpA

Case 5-5. The Bhopal Case

Penalties for Noncompliance

C.SECURITIES REGULATIONS

Securities

Trading in Securities

Securities Exchanges

Issuance of Securities

Clearance and Settlement Procedures

Case 5-6. Batchelder v. Kawamoto

Insider Trading Regulations

Case 5-7. United States v. O’Hagan

Takeover Regulations

D.ENFORCEMENT OF SECURITIES REGULATIONS INTERNATIONALLY

Memorandums of Understanding

The Convention on Insider Trading

Extraterritorial Application of U.S. Securities Laws

Case 5-8. Securities and Exchange Commission v. Knowles

CHAPTER QUESTIONS

REVIEW PROBLEM

Chapter 6 MONEY AND BANKING

A.MONEY

The Value of Money

The Choice of Money

Case 6-1. Republic of Argentina et al. v. Weltover, Inc. et al.

Maintaining Monetary Value

B.THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Origin of the IMF

IMF Quotas

Case 6-2. Re Law Authorizing an Increase in the French Quota to the International Monetary Fund

Organization of the IMF

IMF Operations

C.CURRENCY EXCHANGE

Currency Exchange Obligations of IMF Member States

Enforcement of Exchange Control Regulations of IMF Member States

Case 6-3. De Boer, Widow Moojen v. Ducro et al.

Case 6-4. Wilson, Smithett & Cope, Ltd. v. Terruzzi

Enforcement of Exchange Control Laws in the Absence of IMF Membership

Case 6-5. Menendez et al. v. Saks and Company et al.

Enforcement of Other IMF Member State Currency Exchange Obligations

Exemptions for New Members from IMF Member State Currency Exchange Obligations

D.CURRENCY SUPPORT

IMF Facilities

IMF “Conditionality”

E.DEVELOPMENT BANKS

F.THE BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS

The Central Banks’ Bank

Promoter of International Monetary Cooperation

Agent for International Settlements

G.REGIONAL MONETARY ORGANIZATIONS

H.NATIONAL MONETARY SYSTEMS

National Monetary Organizations

Bank Deposits

Case 6-6. The Banker’s Case

Reading 6-1. Islamic Banking

Eurocurrency Deposits

The Interbank Deposit Market

The Foreign Exchange Market

Foreign Exchange Contracts

Case 6-7. Hunt et al. c. Alliance North American Government Income Trust, Inc. et al.

Arbitrage

The Transfer of Money

Reading 6-2. The Illicit Transfer of Money

Branch Banking

Case 6-8. In re Sealed Case

Case 6-9. Vishipco Line et al. v. Chase Manhattan Bank, N.A.

Case 6-10. Libyan Arab Foreign Bank v. Bankers Trust Company

CHAPTER QUESTIONS

REVIEW PROBLEM

Chapter 7 TRADE IN GOODS

A.HISTORY OF CONTEMPORARY International trade law

The Bretton Woods System

The 1947 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

Multilateral Trade Negotiations

The Uruguay Round

The Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations

B.THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION

The WTO Agreement

The Membership of the WTO

Structure of the WTO

Decision Making within the WTO

Reading 7-1. The Battle for Seattle

Dispute Settlement

Trade Policy Review

C.THE 1994 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

Direct Effect

Case 7-1. Finance Ministry v. Manifattura Lane Marzotto, SpA

Nondiscrimination

Case 7-2. Japan—Taxes on Alcoholic Beverages

Protection through Tariffs

Transparency

Regional Integration

Commodity Arrangements

Escape Clause

Exceptions

Case 7-3. United States—Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products

Export Controls

D.MULTILATERAL TRADE AGREEMENTS

Customs Valuation

Case 7-4. Orbisphere Corp. v. United States

Preshipment Inspection

Technical Barriers to Trade

Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures

Case 7-5. Australia—Measures Affecting Importation of Salmon

Trade-Related Investment Measures

Import Licensing Procedures

Antidumping

Subsidies and Countervailing Measures

Case 7-6. Mukand Ltd. v. Council of the European Union

Safeguards

Agriculture

Textiles and Clothing

Rules of Origin

CHAPTER QUESTIONS

REVIEW PROBLEM

Chapter 8 SERVICES AND LABOR

Introduction

A.THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES

Framework Agreement

Case 8-1. European Communities—Regime for the Importation, Sale, and Distribution of Bananas

GATS Annexes

GATS Schedules of Specific Commitments

B.REGIONAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REGULATIONS ON TRADE IN SERVICES

European Union law on Trade in Services

Case 8-2. Jany v. Staatssecretaris van Justitie

Provisions Governing Trade in Services in the North American Free Trade Agreement

C.INTERNATIONAL Labor law

International Labor Organization

Case 8-3. Duberg v. UNESCO

The Human Rights of Workers

Case 8-4. Doe v. Unocal Corp.

D.REGIONAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REGULATIONS ON LABOR

Employment Laws in the European Union

Employment Standards of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

Protection of Workers’ Rights by the Council of Europe

Transnational Organized Labor

E.MOVEMENT OF WORKERS

Case 8-5. State v. Nagami

Visas

Case 8-6. Republic v. Mussa and Five Others

Case 8-7. England and Another v. Attorney -General of St. Lucia

Regulation of Foreign Workers

Case 8-8. George v. International Air Service Co., Ltd.

Case 8-9. Spiess et al. c. C. Itoh & Co. (America), Inc.

Application of Home State Labor Laws Extraterritorially

Case 8-10. Morelli v. Cedel

CHAPTER QUESTIONS

REVIEW PROBLEM

Chapter 9 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

Introduction

A.THE CREATION OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

Copyrights

Case 9-1. Performing Right Society, Limited v. Hickey

Case 9-2. Quality King Distributors, Inc. v. L’anza Research International, Inc.

Patents

Case 9-3. Monsanto Co. V. Coramandal Indag Products, (P) Ltd.

Trademarks

Case 9-4. Experience Hendrix, L.L.C. v. Hammerton

Know-how

B.INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATIONS

World Intellectual Property Organization

Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

C.INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Treaties

Comprehensive Agreements

Artistic Property Agreements

Industrial Property Agreements

D.THE INTERNATIONAL TRANSFER OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

E.LICENSING REGULATIONS

Territorial Restrictions

Case 9-5. Consten and Grundig v. Commission

Export Restrictions

Cartels

Exclusive Licenses

Case 9-6. Ransome-Kuti v. Phonogram, Ltd.

Sales and Distribution Arrangements

Price Fixing

Noncompetition Clauses

Challenges to Validity

Tying Clauses

Quantity and Field-of-use Restrictions

Restrictions on Research and Development

Quality Controls

Grant-back Provisions

Restrictions that Apply After the Expiration of Intellectual Property Rights

Restrictions that Apply After the Expiration of the Licensing Agreement

F.COMPULSORY LICENSES

Patents

Reading 9-1. Compulsory Patent Licenses in the Fight Against AIDS

Copyrights

CHAPTER QUESTIONS

REVIEW PROBLEM

Chapter 10 SALES

A. United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods

B.TRANSACTIONS COVERED IN CISG

Opting In and Out

Case 10-1. Asante Technologies, Inc. v. PMC-Sierra, Inc.

Sales Defined

Goods Defined

Mixed Sales

C.CONTRACTUAL ISSUES EXCLUDED FROM THE COVERAGE OF CISG

Illegality and Incompetency

Third-Party Claims and Personal Injuries

Preemption

D.INTERPRETING CISG

The Convention

General Principles

Rules of Private International Law

E.INTERPRETING SALES CONTRACTS

Statements and Conduct of the Parties

Negotiations

Case 10-2. MCC Marble Ceramic v. Ceramica

Practices and Usages

Form

F.FORMATION OF THE CONTRACT

The Offer

Effectiveness of an Offer

Acceptance

Case 10-3. United Technologies International, Inc. v. Magyar Légi Küzlekedési Vállalat

Acceptance with Modifications

Case 10-4. Filanto, SpA v. Chilewich International Corp.

G.GENERAL STANDARDS FOR PERFORMANCE

Fundamental Breach

Avoidance

Requests for Specific Performance

H.SELLER’S OBLIGATIONS

Place for Delivery

Time for Delivery

The Turning Over of Documents

Conformity of Goods

I.BUYER’S OBLIGATIONS

Payment of the Price

Case 10-5. The Natural Gas Case

Taking Delivery

J.THE PASSING OF RISK

Agreement of the Parties

Means of Delivery

Breach of Contract

K.REMEDIES

Buyer’s Remedies

Reading 10-1. The Buyer’s Right to Avoid the Contract

Case 10-6. The Shoe Seller’s Case

Seller’s Remedies

Remedies Available to Both Buyers and Sellers

Case 10-7. Downs Investments Pty. Ltd. v. Perwaja Steel SDN BHD

L.EXCUSES FOR NONPERFORMANCE

Force Majeure

Case 10-8. Nuova Fucinati, S.p.A. v. Fondmetall International, A.B.

Dirty Hands

CHAPTER QUESTIONS

REVIEW PROBLEM

Chapter 11 TRANSPORTATION

A.TRADE TERMS

Case 11-1. St. Paul Guardian Insurance Company v. Neuromed Medical Systems & Support, GmbH

A Note on the Incoterms

“Free”Terms

FOB–Free On Board

Case 11-2. Pyrene Co., Ltd. v. Scindia Navigation Co., Ltd.

FAS–Free Alongside Ship

CIF–Cost, Insurance, and Freight

CFR–Cost and Freight

Case 11-3. Phillips Puerto Rico Core, Inc. v. Tradax Petroleum, Ltd.

DES–Delivered Ex Ship

FCA–Free Carrier

EXW–Ex Works

B.TRANSPORTATION

C.INLAND CARRIAGE

D.CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA

Common Carriage

The Bill of Lading

Case 11-4. M. Golodetz & Co., Inc. v. Czarnikow-Rionda Co., Inc. (The Galitia)

Case 11-5. Barclays Bank, Ltd. v. Commissioners of Customs and Excise

The Carrier’s Duties Under a Bill of Lading

The Carrier’s Immunities

Case 11-6. Great China Metal Industries Co. Ltd. v. Malaysian International Shipping Corp.

Liability Limits

Case 11-7. Croft & Scully Co. v M/V Skulptor Vuchetich et al.

Time Limitations

Third-Party Rights (Himalaya Clause)

E.CHARTERPARTIES

Voyage Charterparties

Time Charterparties

Charterparties and Bills of Lading

F.MARITIME LIENS

Case 11-8. The Chinese Seamen’s Foreign Technical Services Co. v. Soto Grande Shipping Corp., SA

G.MARITIME INSURANCE

Perils

Case 11-9. Western Assurance Co. of Toronto v. Shaw

Average Clauses

H.CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY AIR

Case 11-10. Abnett v. British Airways Plc.

CHAPTER QUESTIONS

REVIEW PROBLEM

Chapter 12 FINANCING

A.FINANCING FOREIGN TRADE

B. Bills of Lading

C. Bills OF EXCHANGE

The Law Governing Bills of Exchange

Types of Bills of Exchange

D.PROMISSORY NOTES

E.NEGOTIABILITY OF BILLS AND NOTES

Unconditional Promise or Order to Pay

Definite Sum of Money or Monetary Unit of Account

Payable on Demand or at a Definite Time

Signed by the Maker or Drawer

Case 12-1. Constantaras v. Anagnostopoulos

F.THE NEGOTIATION AND TRANSFER OF BILLS AND NOTES

Assignment

Negotiation

Case 12-2. Miller v. Race

Forged Endorsements

Case 12-3. Mair v. Bank of Nova Scotia

Limitations on the Excuses that Drawers and Makers Can Use to Avoid Paying Off a Bill or Note

Liabilities of Makers, Drawers, Drawees, Endorsers, and Accommodation Parties

Case 12-4. Far East Realty Investment, Inc. v. Court of Appeals et al.

The Role of Banks in Collecting and Paying Negotiable Instruments

Case 12-5. Charles R. Allen, Inc. v. Island Cooperative Services Cooperative Association

G.LETTERS OF CREDIT

Governing Law

Applying for a Letter of Credit

Case 12-6. Trans Trust Sprl v. Danubian Trading Co., Ltd.

Documentary Formalities

Advising and Confirming Letters of Credit

The Obligations of Banks

Case 12-7. Sztejn v. J. Henry Schroeder Banking Corp.

Rights and Responsibilities of the Account Party

Rights and Responsibilities of Beneficiaries

H.FINANCING FOREIGN OPERATIONS

Private Sources of Capital

Governmental Sources of Capital

Regional and International Development Agencies

I.COUNTERTRADE

Reading 12-1. The Pros and Cons of Countertrade

CHAPTER QUESTIONS

REVIEW PROBLEM

Chapter 13 TAXATION

A.PURPOSES OF TAXATION

Case 13-1. In Re Natural Sweet Wines

B.INCOME TAXES

C.TAXPAYERS

Company Taxpayers

Subordinate Business Structures

Case 13-2. Reiss and Company (Nigeria), Ltd. v. Federal Board of Inland Revenue

D.BASES OF INCOME TAXATION

Nationality Principle

Case 13-3. Cook v. Tait, United States Collector of Internal Revenue for the District of Maryland

Residency Principle

Case 13-4. Crown Forest Industries Ltd. v. Canada

Source Principle

Case 13-5. Bank of the Federated States of Micronesia v. Government of the Federated States of Micronesia

Interrelationship of Taxation Bases

Persons Immune from Taxation

E.INCOME

Income Categories

Computation of Income

Income Tax Rates

Case 13-6. Mobil Oil (Nigeria), Ltd. v. Federal Board of Inland Revenue

Integration of Company and Personal Income Taxes

Other Tax Generating Transactions

F.DOUBLE TAXATION

Systems for Relief from Double Taxation

Comparison of the Double Taxation Relief Systems

Case 13-7. Director General of Inland Revenue v. Rothmans of Pall Mall (Malaysia) Bhd.

G.TAX TREATIES

Coverage of Tax Treaties

Basis for Taxation

Double Taxation Provisions

Case 13-8. Johansson v. United States

H.TAX INCENTIVES

Tax Sparing

The Interaction of Tax Systems

I.TAX AVOIDANCE AND EVASION

Tax Avoidance

Reading 13-1. Reincorporating Abroad to Minimize Taxes as an Act of Patriotism

Case 13-9. Barclays Bank, PLC v. Franchise Tax Board of California

Tax Evasion

Case 13-10. Kalo v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue

J.OTHER FORMS OF TAXATION

Turnover Taxes

Reading 13-2. Defining the Value-Added Tax

Conclusion

Notes

See Also

References and Further Reading

About the Author/s and Reviewer/s

Author: international

Mentioned in these Entries

Attorney, Bills of Lading, Bills, Bumper Development Corp., Ltd. v. Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis and Others, Case Concerning Barcelona Traction, Light, and Power Company, Common law, De Sanchez v. Banco Central de Nicaragua, Diplomacy, Education, European Union law, Flatow v. The Islamic Republic of Iran, Foreign Law, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, International Court of Justice, International Organizations, International trade law, Labor law, Matimak Trading Co. v. Khalily, Patents, Private International Law, REYNO v. PIPER AIRCRAFT COMPANY, Regina v. Bartle and the Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis and Others, Settlement of Disputes, The Asylum Case, Treaties, United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, United States—Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products.

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